A newly published study examined whether racial and ethnic differences exist in the effects of educational attainment and poverty status on hookah smoking among American adults. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 28,329 adult participants of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health.Findings included:
- Overall, individuals with higher educational attainment were more likely to smoke a hookah.
- Individuals who lived out of poverty had lower odds of current hookah smoking.
- Race and ethnicity both showed statistical interactions with both socioeconomic indicators suggesting that Blacks and Hispanics with high educational attainment and those who live out of poverty have disproportionately high odds of hookah smoking, compared to non-Hispanic Whites with high socioeconomic status.
The researchers concluded that in the United States, middle-class racial and ethnic minority people remain at higher risk of smoking hookah, and that policymakers should not take an over-simplistic way and reduce the problem of race/ethnic inequalities in tobacco use to gaps in socioeconomic status between groups. Middle-class racial and ethnic minority people need extra support to stay healthy.
Source: Assari et al. (2020). Social Determinants of Hookah Smoking in the United States. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 21-27.