Young adults have high smoking rates and low utilization of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies. A recently published study investigated smoking cessation intentions, strategy use, and socioeconomic predictors of strategy use among young adult smokers (age 18-24) and compared patterns to those of older adults (age 25-64).
· Young adults planned to quit on a longer time frame, expressed lower interest in quitting, and were more confident they would be successful, compared to older adults.
· Young adults were significantly less likely to use pharmacotherapy.
· Both groups reported using product substitution, primarily with e-cigarettes, more than any evidence-based cessation strategy.
· Socioeconomic predictors of cessation strategy use did not differ between age groups.
The researchers concluded that more research on why young adult smokers underutilize evidence-based cessation support is needed, as are innovative efforts to increase intentions to quit and utilization of cessation assistance.
Source: Watkins et al. (2018). Cold Turkey and Hot Vapes? A national study of young adult cigarette cessation strategies. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Dec 26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty270. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study explored the effect of tobacco retailer density, neighborhood poverty, and housing type (multiunit and public) on smoking in a large urban environment (New York City). Researchers analyzed data on smoking prevalence and individual sociodemographic characteristics from the 2011-2013 New York City Community Health Survey, data on tobacco retailers from the 2012 New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, data on neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and population density from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, and data on multiunit and public housing from the 2012 New York City Primary Land Use Tax Lot Output data set.
- Neighborhood poverty positively and significantly modified the association between tobacco retailer density and prevalence of neighborhood smoking.
- Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with the prevalence of individual smoking.
Source: Farley et al. (2019). The Influence of Tobacco Retailer Density and Poverty on Tobacco Use in a Densely Populated Urban Environment. Public Health Reports, Mar/Apr;134(2):164-171. doi: 10.1177/0033354918824330. Epub 2019 Feb 14.
- E-cigarette use increased in the years following the ban while combustible cigarette use decreased from 2013 to 2016.
- Men were more likely than women to use both products.
- Students’ perceptions of the harmfulness of combustible and electronic cigarettes remained stable in the years following the ban.
- Of 989,080 heart failure hospitalizations, 16% had documented tobacco or substance use disorder.
- Female sex was associated with lower rates of tobacco and substance use disorder.
- Tobacco and substance use disorder rates were highest for hospitalizations <55 years of age.
- Medicaid insurance or income in the lowest quartile were associated with increased risk of tobacco and substance use disorders.
Few studies have focused on understanding how sociodemographic factors impact healthy ageing in the rapidly growing population of Alaskan older adults. A newly published study compared the health of Alaskan older adults to those in the contiguous US, and determined how the associations differ between older adults in Alaska and the contiguous US.
· In the contiguous US, females were less likely than males to be obese, while in Alaska, females were more likely to be obese.
· In the contiguous US, Alaska Natives/American Indians were more likely than respondents of other races to be smokers, while in Alaska, the association between race and smoking was not significant.
· These differences between Alaska and the contiguous US results suggest that programs designed to reduce disparities and promote healthy behaviours may need to be tailored to meet the unique needs and challenges of older adults living in Alaska.
Source: Cohen et al. (2019). Disparities in social determinants of health outcomes and behaviours between older adults in Alaska and the contiguous US: evidence from a national survey. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, Dec;78(1):1557980. doi: 10.1080/22423982.2018.1557980.
Restricting youth access to tobacco is a central feature of US tobacco regulatory policy, but impact of local tobacco retail licensing (TRL) regulation on cigarette smoking rates remains uncertain. A newly published study examined the effects of TRL on other tobacco product use and use as adolescents reach the age to legally purchase tobacco products. Prevalences of ever and past 30-day cigarette, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), cigar, and hookah use were assessed in a survey of a cohort of 1553 11th- and 12th-grade adolescents. An American Lung Association (2014) youth access grade was assigned to each of 14 political jurisdictions in which participants lived on the basis of the strength of the local TRL ordinance.
· At baseline, participants living in 4 jurisdictions with “A” grades (ie, with most restrictive ordinances) had lower odds of ever cigarette use and past 30-day use than participants in 10 D- to F-grade jurisdictions.
· At follow-up at legal age of purchase, lower odds of cigarette use initiation occurred in jurisdictions with stronger TRL policy.
· Lower odds of e-cigarette initiation at follow-up and of initiation with past 30-day use were also associated with better regulation.
The researchers concluded that strong local TRL ordinance may lower rates of cigarette and e-cigarette use among youth and young adults.
Source: Astor et al. (2019). Tobacco Retail Licensing and Youth Product Use. Pediatrics, Jan 7. pii: e20173536. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-3536. [Epub ahead of print]
Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive disorders, and pain. A recently published study examined the clustering of current PTSD, depressive disorders, and clinically significant pain according to current tobacco use and dependence among post-9/11 deployed veterans. The study found that moderate to high dependence on tobacco was associated with substantially increased clustering of PTSD, depression, and clinically significant pain in veterans. The researchers concluded that research examining synergistic interactions among these conditions, biological vulnerabilities shared among them, and the direct impact of tobacco use on the pathophysiology of PTSD, depression, and pain is needed. The results of such work may spur development of more effective integrated treatments to reduce the negative impact of these multi-morbid conditions on veterans’ wellbeing and long-term health.
Source: Fonda et al. (2019). Tobacco dependence is associated with increased risk for multi-morbid clustering of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, and pain among post-9/11 deployed veterans. Psychopharmacology, Jan 7. doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-5155-6. [Epub ahead of print]
- African Americans and English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos had higher engagement with the financial incentive ($20) compared to whites.
- Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos had lower initial engagement with the financial incentive but higher engagement with Medi-Cal’s all-household mailing.
- Although African Americans and English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos had similar rates of completing counseling and receiving nicotine replacement therapy as whites, Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos had higher rates compared to whites.
- There was no difference in cigarette smoking prevalence across racial/ethnic groups.
- Hispanics and African Americans, compared to Whites, were less likely to be daily smokers, use smokeless tobacco, or use e-cigarettes.
- African Americans and Hispanics reported more past-year quit attempts and higher use of menthol compared to Whites.
- Hispanics were more interested in quitting while in treatment than Whites.
- African Americans reported receiving more tobacco cessation advice and services while in treatment than Whites.