A recently published study examined whether cigarette use among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) is lower in metropolitan areas than in rural areas and tribal lands (which are predominantly rural).
· Metropolitan (large or small) areas versus rural areas: no statistically significant differences in cigarette use were found.
· Metropolitan (large or small) areas versus tribal lands: days of cigarette use and daily use were significantly lower in tribal lands.
· Tribal lands were also lower than small metropolitan areas regarding number of cigarettes used and nicotine dependence.
· Rural areas versus tribal lands: cigarette measures were consistently lower in tribal lands. For example, the prevalence of current smokers, daily users and nicotine dependence, respectively, was 37.9%, 25.9%, and 16.3% in rural areas and 27.4%, 13.6%, and 8.9% in tribal lands.
The researchers concluded that differences in cigarette use between AI/AN in nontribal rural and metropolitan areas were not indicated. Instead, the place differences found were lower cigarette use in tribal lands than in nontribal rural areas and, to some extent, metropolitan areas.
Source: Cunningham et al. (2019). Cigarette Use Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in Metropolitan Areas, Rural Areas, and Tribal Lands. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, Sep/Oct; 25 Suppl 5.
A newly published study examined whether adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns over time differ by ethnicity. Data were pooled from three cohort studies of adolescents in California and Connecticut.
· Among non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants, ever e-cigarette or cigarette users at baseline (vs. never users) had significantly higher odds of past 30-day use tobacco use pattern at follow-up.
· Among Hispanic White (HW) participants, compared with never users, exclusive e-cigarette users at baseline had increased odds of continued e-cigarette use but not of transition to exclusive cigarette use at follow-up and HW exclusive cigarette users at baseline had greater odds of continued cigarette use but not of transition to exclusive e-cigarette use at follow-up.
Findings that NHW youth report more transitional use patterns and HW youth report more stable use patterns suggest a potential for differential impacts of e-cigarettes, by ethnicity, in increasing subsequent transition to or cessation from cigarette smoking.
Source: Barrington-Trimis et al. (2019). Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Cigarette and E-Cigarette Use Over Time Among Adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health, Jun 24. pii: S1054-139X(19)30199-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.04.002. [Epub ahead of print]
A newly published study examined how adolescents use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and compared youth who are only use ENDS and polytobacco users (ENDS and at least one other tobacco product). Researchers surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,517 13-25-year olds.
· 4.5% of adolescents and 10% of young adults reported past 30-day ENDS use.
· ENDS users were 38.8% female and 70.6% white.
· Over half (55.9%) were polytobacco ENDS users.
· The most common patterns of polytobacco ENDS use were ENDS and cigarettes (11.5%), ENDS and cigars (7.7%), and ENDS, cigars, and waterpipe (5.2%).
· Those who perceived ENDS to be less harmful than cigarettes were more likely to be exclusive ENDS users than those who perceived ENDS to be as or more harmful than cigarettes.
· There were no differences between ENDS groups on age, race, sex, parental education, sexual orientation, or ENDS use frequency.
The researchers concluded that the Food and Drug Administration is responsible for communicating product risk to consumers and should consider common patterns of use and relative risk perceptions in its ENDS public education efforts.
Source: King et al. (2018). Polytobacco Use Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult E-Cigarette Users. The Journal of Adolescent Health, Aug 13. pii: S1054-139X(18)30186-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study examined substance use disparities among sexual minority youth. The current subsample of 348,175 students participated in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) study from years 2005 to 2015.
· Female lesbian and bisexual youth were at risk of initiating substance use at younger ages and, among lifetime users, were more likely to persist in their tobacco and marijuana use over time, relative to sexually active female heterosexual youth.
· Among lifetime users, male youth with partners of both sexes were at greater risk of persistent use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and earlier ages of first use.
Source: Talley et al. (2019). Sexual Minority Youth at Risk of Early and Persistent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s10508-018-1275-7. [Epub ahead of print]
JUUL Called Before Congressional Subcommittee
On July 24 and 25, 2019, the Subcommittee on Economic and Consumer Policy, led by Chairman Raja Krishnamoorthi, held hearings to examine JUUL Labs, Inc.’s responsibility for the youth nicotine addiction epidemic.
Watch Part I and II of the hearings below:
Part I of the Congressional Hearings
Part II of the Congressional Hearings
Our LOOP Leaders Attended these Hearings!
Check out our very own Dr. Valerie Yerger and Carol McGruder who were present at the hearings. In fact, they were sitting in the very front row behind the JUUL co-founder. They were featured in the New York Times article photo (below).
A recently published study examined the relationships between flavored tobacco use and single, dual, and poly tobacco product use, among adolescents. Data were obtained from the 2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 2,329 adolescent past 30-day tobacco users.
· Approximately half of all adolescent tobacco users (49%) reported use of more than one product.
· The majority of adolescent tobacco users reported using flavors (73%).
· Flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of dual and poly tobacco use, relative to single product use.
· Similarly, flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of poly tobacco use, relative to dual tobacco use.
The researchers concluded that there is a positive relationship between flavored tobacco use and multiple tobacco product use. Recommendations included stronger regulations of flavored tobacco products and the need to emphasize flavored tobacco use in prevention and education programs.
Source: Mantey et al. (2018). Flavored tobacco use is associated with dual and poly tobacco use among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, Dec 27;92:84-88. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study assessed whether tobacco policy, program, and communication evidence-based practice implementation is associated with employee tobacco outcomes (current smoking; quit attempt; smokeless tobacco (SLT) use; and perceived worksite support for cessation) at small low-wage worksites. The study found that communication practice implementation was associated with better perceived worksite support for cessation. Policy and program implementation were associated with increased odds of being a current SLT user.
Tobacco communication evidence-based practice implementation was associated with favorable perceptions of worksite support for cessation; more may be needed to change tobacco use behavior.
Source: Kava et al. (2019). Tobacco Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Employee Tobacco-Related Outcomes at Small Low-Wage Worksites. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr 19. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001618. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study examined changes in cigarette prevalence and quit ratios over 15 years by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files.
- 19% of NH White persons were daily smokers in 2016; this prevalence was significantly higher than all other groups (NH Black 11%, Hispanic 7%, NH Other 9%).
- Menthol use was significantly more common among NH Black individuals than all other groups in every year from 2002 to 2016 (2016: NH Black 23%, NH White 15%, Hispanic 10%, NH Other 9%).
- From 2002 to 2016, daily and nondaily smoking decreased significantly among all groups.
- The rate of decline of nondaily smoking was more rapid among Hispanic than NH White individuals while the rate of menthol smoking decline was more rapid among NH White than among Hispanic individuals.
- The quit ratio did not change significantly from 2002 to 2016 among NH Black individuals (31% to 35%) in contrast to a significant increase among NH White (2002, 45%; 2016, 50%) and Hispanic (2002, 33%; 2016, 41%) individuals.
Source: Weinberger et al. (2019). Racial/ethnic differences in daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and smoking quit ratios in the United States: 2002 to 2016. Preventive Medicine, Apr 17. pii: S0091-7435(19)30133-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]
In a recently published study heterogeneity in tobacco-use behaviors among U.S. blacks by global region of origin and age at immigration was examined. Self-identified black participants from the 2006-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were included (n = 47,857). Countries of origin were classified by global regions (U.S., Africa, Europe, West Indies).
- Prevalence of current cigarette smoking among U.S. blacks varied significantly by global region of origin (U.S.-born = 17%, Europe-born = 18%, Africa-born = 5%, West-Indies-born = 5%).
- Foreign-born blacks were less likely than U.S.-born blacks to smoke menthol flavored cigarettes.
- Participants who immigrated to the U.S. at ≥ 13 years old were less likely than U.S.-born blacks to start regular smoking as minor.
Source: Saint-Fort & Choi (2019). Heterogeneity in Tobacco-Use Behaviors Among U.S. Blacks per Global Region of Origin. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s10903-019-00865-x. [Epub ahead of print]