Young Adults’ Secondhand Smoke Exposure in San Francisco’s Multi-Unit Housing

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A newly published study evaluated young adults’ exposure to drifting secondhand smoke in San Francisco County housing units using the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey (N = 1363). Specifically, the study examined whether residing in multiunit housing or in areas with greater neighborhood disorder were risk factors for exposure, and how drifting smoke exposure varied spatially within San Francisco County.

 

Findings included:

  • Residing in buildings with five or more units significantly increased the odds of reporting drifting smoke exposure.
  • Neighborhood disorder was significantly associated with exposure in lower income residential and downtown areas.
  • Multiunit housing was significantly associated with exposure across all neighborhoods.

 

Source: Holmes et al. (2019). Drifting Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Young Adults in Multiunit Housing. Journal of Community Health, Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Creating Smokefree Living Spaces For Non-Smoking Partners of Chinese American Smokers

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Chinese men smoke at high rates, and this puts household members at risk for tobacco-related diseases. A newly published qualitative study examines perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs in the Creating Smokefree Living Together Program.
Researchers conducted four focus groups with 30 Chinese American participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) who, in household pairs, completed smokefree education interventions of either brief or moderate intensity. 
 
Findings included:
·         There was a preference for dyadic and group interventions because of the support offered.
·         Increased knowledge of the health harms of smoke exposure within a pair improved the nonsmoker’s support for smokefree living.
·         Learning communication strategies improved household relationships and assertiveness for smokefree environments.
·         Biochemical feedback was useful but had short-term effects.
·         Project magnets provided cues to action.
 
The researchers concluded that involving household partners is critical to smokefree interventions. Simple reminders at home appear to be more powerful than personal biochemical feedback of smoke exposure for sustaining motivation and engagement in ongoing behavioral changes within the household. 
 
Source: Saw et al. (2018). Perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs about the creating smokefree living together program.
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Did You Know? Rapid Increase from 2010 – 2015 in Hookah Use Among African American Adults

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Among young adults, use of hookah tobacco (HT) is an emerging health-risk behavior. A newly published study examined whether the prevalence of ever-use and current use of HT increased among U.S. young adults (18-30 years old) in the period from 2010 to 2015 and whether the patterns of HT use differed across diverse demographic subpopulations of young adults. Researchers analyzed data from the 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey.

 

Findings included:

·         The rate of current use of HT increased from 1% in 2010-11 to 2% in 2014-15.

·         The rate of ever-use increased from 7% to 12%.

·         The over-time increase was not uniform: the increase was most rapid among 26-30 year-old adults, non-Hispanic Black and African American adults, and in Northeastern and Midwestern U.S. regions.

·         The rate of HT ever-use was 16% for daily and 23% for occasional cigarette smokers, 23% for users of smokeless tobacco products, 37% for cigar smokers, and 55% for smokers of regular pipe (filled with tobacco).

 

The researchers concluded that because HT use is becoming increasingly more popular among young adults, methods should target not only cessation of cigarette smoking but use of all tobacco products.

 

Source: Soulakova et al. (2018). Prevalence and factors associated with use of hookah tobacco among young adults in the U.S. Addictive Behaviors, May 12;85:21-25. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.05.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Tobacco Industry Targets American Indians and Alaska Natives Through Emails

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Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaska Natives (NH AI/AN) have the highest commercial tobacco use (CTU) among U.S. racial/ethnic groups. A newly published study examined the prevalence of tobacco industry marketing exposure and correlates of CTU among NH AI/AN compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study were analyzed.
Findings included:
  • NH AI/AN had a higher prevalence of exposure to retail tobacco ads (65% vs 59%), mail (20% vs.14%) and email (17% vs.11%) marketing than NH Whites.
  • CTU was higher among NH AI/AN than NH Whites and among adults who reported exposure to tobacco ads, mail, and email marketing.
There is higher tobacco marketing exposure in stores and via mail for NH AI/AN. Email marketing exposure was higher, even after controlling for tobacco-related risk factors. The tobacco industry may be targeting NH AI/AN through emails, which include coupons and other marketing promotions.
Source: Carroll et al. (2019). Tobacco Industry Marketing Exposure and Commercial Tobacco Product Use Disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Substance Use & Misuse, Sep 23:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Major Gaps In Tobacco Marketing Related Research Focusing On Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, Pregnant Women, LGBT Populations, And Those With Mental Health Or Medical Co-Morbidities

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A newly published paper reviewed the literature on pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns targeting eight vulnerable populations to determine key findings and research gaps.
Findings included:
  • There were 144 articles that met inclusion criteria on pro-tobacco marketing or anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at eight US groups: women of reproductive age, racial/ethnic minority groups (African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native), Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) populations, groups with low socioeconomic status, rural/inner city residents, military/veterans, and people with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • There were more studies on pro-tobacco marketing rather than anti-tobacco campaigns, and on cigarettes rather than other tobacco products.
  • Major gaps included studies on Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, pregnant women, LGBT populations, and those with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • Gaps related to tobacco products were found for hookah, snus, and pipe/roll-your-own tobacco in the pro-tobacco studies, and for all products except cigarettes in anti-tobacco studies.
Source: Cruz et al. (2019). Pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at vulnerable populations: A review of the literature. Tobacco Induced Diseases, Sep 18;17:68.

Did You Know? Youngest Teens (11-14) More Supportive of Tobacco 21

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Tobacco 21 (T21) is a population-based strategy to prevent tobacco initiation. A majority of U.S. youths support T21; however, the extent to which individual, interpersonal, and community factors influence T21 support is uncertain. A newly published study examined predictors of T21 support among U.S. youth. Data from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed.

 

Findings included:

·         Among nonusers, students least receptive to peer influence, those youngest in age (11-14 years) and those who believe tobacco is dangerous had higher odds of T21 support.

·         Among users, lower odds of T21 support were observed among those who purchased tobacco and accessed tobacco through social sources or other means in the past 30 days.

·         Younger tobacco users (11-14 years), black, non-Hispanic users, e-cigarette users, and users who believe that tobacco is dangerous had higher odds of T21 support.

 

The researchers concluded that low receptivity to peer influence and lack of access to tobacco products are associated with T21 support.

Source: Glover-Kudon et al. (2019). Association of Peer Influence and Access to Tobacco Products With U.S. Youths’ Support of Tobacco 21 Laws, 2015. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(2), 202-209.

Did You Know: In 2018, 64% of Youth Smokers Used Flavored Tobacco Products

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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students.

 

Findings included:

  • In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014.
  • Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015.
  • During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students.

 

The researchers concluded that full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

 

Source: Cullen et al. (2019). Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2014-2018. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Oct 4;68(39):839-844.

Did You Know: Tobacco Industry Targets American Indians and Alaska Natives Through Emails

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Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaska Natives (NH AI/AN) have the highest commercial tobacco use (CTU) among U.S. racial/ethnic groups. A newly published study examined prevalence of tobacco industry marketing exposure and correlates of CTU among NH AI/AN compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study were analyzed.

 

Findings included:

  • NH AI/AN had a higher prevalence of exposure to retail tobaccoads (65% vs 59%), mail (20% vs.14%) and email (17% vs.11%) marketing than NH Whites.
  • CTU was higher among NH AI/AN than NH Whites and among adults who reported exposure to tobacco ads, mail, and email marketing.

 

There is higher tobacco marketing exposure in stores and via mail for NH AI/AN. Email marketing exposure was higher, even after controlling for tobacco-related risk factors. The tobacco industry may be targeting NH AI/AN through emails, which include coupons and other marketing promotions.

 

Source: Carroll et al. (2019). Tobacco Industry Marketing Exposure and Commercial Tobacco Product Use Disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Substance Use & Misuse, Sep 23:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Study Demonstrates Link Between Social Support, Sexual Identity Status and Tobacco Use Disorder

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A recently published study assessed associations between social support and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder by sex and sexual minority identity.

 

Tobacco related findings included:

  • Sexual minority adults had higher odds of tobacco use disorder compared to heterosexual adults.
  • Sexual minority women experienced the highest proportion of tobacco use disorder.
  • Higher social provision was associated with lower rates of tobacco use disorder.
  • Compared to heterosexual adults, sexual minority women with at least one child under the age of 18 had higher odds of tobacco use disorder.

 

The researchers concluded that there are significant associations between functional support (quality or provision of support) and structural support (type and frequency of social networks) and tobacco use disorder which differ by sex and sexual identity status.

 

Source: Kahle et al. (2019). Functional and structural social support, substance use and sexual orientation from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Addiction, Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Study Examines Why Youth Engage with Online Tobacco Marketing

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A newly published study examined the reasons why adolescents and young adults engage with online tobacco marketing. A sample of 2619 adolescents (13-17 years) and 2625 young adults (18-24 years) living in the US participated in an online survey in July-August 2017.

 

Findings included:

  • Across all tobacco use statuses, the leading reasons for engagement were curiosity or desire for general knowledge about tobacco products (3.9%); incidental, unintended or forced exposure to tobacco ad (3.8%); and seeking discounts, coupons, incentives, or contests (2.9%).
  • Susceptible never tobacco users were more likely to engage because of curiosity or general knowledge than non-susceptible never tobacco users.
  • Past 30-day tobacco users were more likely to engage because of discounts, coupons, incentives, or contests and product appeal than ever, but not past 30-day tobacco users.

 

The researchers concluded that stricter state and federal regulation of tobacco marketing, specifically tobacco ads and coupons, and stronger self-regulation by social networking sites could reduce youth engagement with online tobacco marketing.

Source: Soneji et al. (2019). Reasons for engagement with online tobacco marketing among US adolescents and young adults. Tobacco Induced Diseases, Jan 10;17:02.