- College educated persons (vs. those with less than a high school diploma) had a 37% greater prevalence of current ENDS use and a 16% greater prevalence of former ENDS use.
- Persons with household incomes above $90K (vs. less than $20,000) had a greater prevalence of current and former ENDS use.
- Those who were employed (vs. not employed) had a 13% greater prevalence of current ENDS use.
- Higher SES (vs. lower SES) persons were more likely to use ENDS.
Smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings in the U.S. and known predictors of smoking do not readily account for this trend difference. A recently published study examined whether smoking trends are different for rural and urban men and women. Researchers analyzed data (n = 303,311) from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2007 through 2014 to compare cigarette smoking trends in men and women across rural and urban areas.
- Whereas the smoking trends of rural men, urban men, and urban women significantly declined from 2007 to 2014, the trend for rural women was flat.
- Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial predictors of smokingdid not explain rural women’s significantly different trend from those of the other three groups.
The researchers concluded that rural women lag behind rural men, urban men and urban women in decreasing smoking, a health disparity finding that supports the need for tobacco control and regulatory policies and interventions that are more effective in reducing smokingamong rural women.
A recently published study examined intra-ethnic racial differences in waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) among Latinos using a nationally representative sample. Researchers analyzed pooled data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2012-2014.
· Black Latinos and White Latinos exhibited an increased prevalence of lifetime WTS compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts.
· Black Latino men exhibited increased prevalence of lifetime WTS compared to their non-Hispanic white men counterparts.
· Black Latinas and white Latinas exhibited increased prevalence of WTS compared to their non-Hispanic white women counterparts.
The researchers concluded that among the U.S. general adult population, intra-ethnic racial differences in WTS behaviors exist among Latinos; and is shaped by gender. Future efforts to eliminate racial disparities in WTS should be attentive to intra-ethnic racial differences among Latinos.
Source: Ortiz et al. (2018). Intra-Ethnic Racial Differences in Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among Latinos? Substance Use & Misuse, Jul 20, 1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Communication technology-based interventions are increasingly being employed to help smokers quit. Understanding preferences for such strategies among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers can inform targeted intervention planning. A newly published study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ use of and access to communication technology and elucidated preferences for receiving quitting information and support via email and text message. A self-administered survey and focus groups were conducted with a sample of 15 predominantly African American, socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers aged 21-64 years.
· Smartphone ownership was high, although use of communication-based cessation resources such as web sites and smartphone apps was low.
· Four themes emerged relevant to preferences for receiving quitting information and support via email and text message: access, appropriateness, intended use, and satisfaction.
· Although initially participants were mixed in their preferences for receiving emails vs texts, 80% preferred emails over texts when presented with sample emails and text messages containing cessation information.
The researchers concluded that although email and text message strategies may be acceptable to socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers generally, issues such as access and intended use should be considered to inform specific disparity-reducing intervention approaches.
Source: Alcaraz et al. (2018). To Text or Not to Text? Technology-based Cessation Communication Preferences among Urban, Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers. Ethnicity & Disease, Jul 12, 28(3), 161-168.
A recently published study examined the association between risk perceptions of youths’ personal and parental attitudes toward smoking cigarettes, cigars, and marijuana with current use of cigars, cigarillos or little cigars (CCLCs) or modified CCLCs (i.e., freaking or blunting). Researchers analyzed data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
- 23.5% of youth reported current use of CCLCs in some way; 11.0% reported current freaking and 18.5% reported current blunt use.
- CCLC users tended to be male and Black.
- Perceiving all smoking behaviors as risky, wrong, or wrong by parents reduced odds of youth using CCLCs.
- Blacks had increased odds of using CCLCs if they perceived smoking cigarettes as harmful, which was not found among other race/ethnicity categories.
- Having parents who believed that smoking CCLCs is wrong increased the odds of youth freaking or blunting among all CCLC users.
- Odds of blunting were greater for those who believed CCLCs were more risky among all CCLC users.
The findings suggest that CCLC users may think cigars are safer than cigarettes, and that modifiers may think their use is safer and more in line with their parents’ views than non-modified CCLCs.
Source: Trapl et al. (2018). Attitudes and Risk Perceptions Toward Smoking Among Adolescents Who Modify Cigar Products. Ethnicity & Disease, Jul 12, 28(3), 135-144.
- Tobacco use was more prevalent among sexual minority-identified adults compared with heterosexual-identified adults.
- Tobacco use among sexual minorities was most prevalent among younger lesbian women and gay men, and all age groups of bisexual men and women.
- Tobacco use was significantly greater among sexual identity-attraction discordant women and significantly lower among sexual identity-attraction discordant men.
A recently published study examined patterns of cigarette smoking (current, former, never) by sociodemographic, household, and chronic disease characteristics and correlates among US adults receiving housing assistance from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) during 2007-2012.
- Overall, 48% of HUD-assisted adults were never smokers, 33% were current smokers, and 19% were former smokers.
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among adults aged 18 to 44 (54%) or 65 years or older (50%) than among adults aged 45 to 64 (38%).
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among women (51%) than men (41%).
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among Hispanic adults (59%) and non-Hispanic black adults (55%) than non-Hispanic white adults (37%)
Source: Wang et al. (2018). Characteristics and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking Status Among US Adults Receiving Federal Housing Assistance. Preventing Chronic Disease, Mar 22;15:E48. doi: 10.5888/pcd15.170395.
Did You Know? African American And Low SES Children With Asthma Have More Exposure To Passive Tobacco Smoke
A newly published study examined the risk of asthma in children exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Researchers analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064).
- The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003-2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013-2014 cycle.
- Highly exposed asthmatic children were primarily Non-Hispanic Black and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines.
- Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3-11 in the US decreased over the study period.
- Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma.
The researchers concluded that targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.
Source: Zhang et al. (2018). Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children. Environmental Research, May 31;166:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.022. [Epub ahead of print]
That Tobacco Cessation Programs May Want To Target Low SES Sexual Minorities Within A Context Of Co-Occurring Substance And Alcohol Use?
Cigarette smoking is substantially more prevalent and rates of smoking cessation are lower in low-SES adults. Financial strain may be one explanation for this. A newly published study assessed the link between financial strain, quit attempts, and successful smoking cessation among adult smokers in the U.S. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-2015) were analyzed.
- Smokers with financial strain made more quit attempts than smokers without financial strain, but financial strain was not associated with abstinence at follow-up.
- Low income was associated with less abstinence at follow-up.
- Smokers with baseline financial strain who quit at follow-up had lower odds of financial strain at follow-up.
The researchers concluded that financially strained smokers made slightly more quit attempts than non-strained smokers but were no more likely to successfully quit.
Source: Kalkhoran et al. (2018). Financial Strain, Quit Attempts, and Smoking Abstinence Among U.S. Adult Smokers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Apr 5. pii: S0749-3797(18)30068-0. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.01.036. [Epub ahead of print]
Read the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29628382