Major Gaps In Tobacco Marketing Related Research Focusing On Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, Pregnant Women, LGBT Populations, And Those With Mental Health Or Medical Co-Morbidities

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A newly published paper reviewed the literature on pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns targeting eight vulnerable populations to determine key findings and research gaps.
Findings included:
  • There were 144 articles that met inclusion criteria on pro-tobacco marketing or anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at eight US groups: women of reproductive age, racial/ethnic minority groups (African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native), Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) populations, groups with low socioeconomic status, rural/inner city residents, military/veterans, and people with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • There were more studies on pro-tobacco marketing rather than anti-tobacco campaigns, and on cigarettes rather than other tobacco products.
  • Major gaps included studies on Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, pregnant women, LGBT populations, and those with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • Gaps related to tobacco products were found for hookah, snus, and pipe/roll-your-own tobacco in the pro-tobacco studies, and for all products except cigarettes in anti-tobacco studies.
Source: Cruz et al. (2019). Pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at vulnerable populations: A review of the literature. Tobacco Induced Diseases, Sep 18;17:68.

Study Examines How Tobacco Industry Marketing Incorporated American Indian Culture And Traditional Tobacco

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As part of this study (Tobacco Control, February 2018) researchers conducted a keyword search of industry documents using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. The study found that tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The researchers concluded that the tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Recommendations include ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use.

Source: D’Silva et al. (2018). Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. Tobacco Control, Feb 19, [Epub ahead of print]

Read the abstract at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459389

Did You Know: Tobacco Industry Targets American Indians and Alaska Natives Through Emails

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Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaska Natives (NH AI/AN) have the highest commercial tobacco use (CTU) among U.S. racial/ethnic groups. A newly published study examined prevalence of tobacco industry marketing exposure and correlates of CTU among NH AI/AN compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study were analyzed.

 

Findings included:

  • NH AI/AN had a higher prevalence of exposure to retail tobaccoads (65% vs 59%), mail (20% vs.14%) and email (17% vs.11%) marketing than NH Whites.
  • CTU was higher among NH AI/AN than NH Whites and among adults who reported exposure to tobacco ads, mail, and email marketing.

 

There is higher tobacco marketing exposure in stores and via mail for NH AI/AN. Email marketing exposure was higher, even after controlling for tobacco-related risk factors. The tobacco industry may be targeting NH AI/AN through emails, which include coupons and other marketing promotions.

 

Source: Carroll et al. (2019). Tobacco Industry Marketing Exposure and Commercial Tobacco Product Use Disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Substance Use & Misuse, Sep 23:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Study Demonstrates Link Between Social Support, Sexual Identity Status and Tobacco Use Disorder

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A recently published study assessed associations between social support and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder by sex and sexual minority identity.

 

Tobacco related findings included:

  • Sexual minority adults had higher odds of tobacco use disorder compared to heterosexual adults.
  • Sexual minority women experienced the highest proportion of tobacco use disorder.
  • Higher social provision was associated with lower rates of tobacco use disorder.
  • Compared to heterosexual adults, sexual minority women with at least one child under the age of 18 had higher odds of tobacco use disorder.

 

The researchers concluded that there are significant associations between functional support (quality or provision of support) and structural support (type and frequency of social networks) and tobacco use disorder which differ by sex and sexual identity status.

 

Source: Kahle et al. (2019). Functional and structural social support, substance use and sexual orientation from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Addiction, Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Homeless Youth Tobacco Use Impacted by Tobacco Advertisement for Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah

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A recently published study examined associations between the appeal of advertising for 5 classes of tobacco product (electronic cigarettes, hookah, cigars, cigarillos, and smokeless tobacco) and future intentions to use those products again among homeless youth who had indicated lifetime use. A probability sample of 469 young tobacco users experiencing homelessness (mean age = 22; 71% male; 29% non-Hispanic White) was recruited from 25 service and street sites in Los Angeles County. The researchers found that advertising appeal was positively associated with future intentions to use again for electronic cigarettes and hookah, but not cigars, or cigarillos.

Results suggest that advertising appeal may increase use of certain tobacco products among youth experiencing homelessness. However, differences in themes emphasized by advertising for specific tobacco products could differentially influence use in this population.

 

Source: Shadel et al. (2019). Associations of Tobacco Advertising Appeal With Intentions to Use Alternative Tobacco Products Among Young Tobacco Users Experiencing Homelessness. American Journal of Health Promotion, Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know: Youth Exiting Foster Care Are At High Risk For Smoking

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Among the struggles faced by youth currently in or recently exiting foster care, tobacco use remains a low priority for practitioners and researchers, alike. A recently published study aimed to determine the prevalence of lifetime and current combustible and non-combustible tobacco use among youth exiting foster care, and report on the prevalence of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit, and preferred methods of tobacco cessation. Youth aged 18-24 who were transitioning from foster care (N = 154) completed a survey of tobacco product use.

 

Findings included:

  • Most participants (76%) reported lifetime use of combustible cigarettes, while almost half (42%) were current combustible cigarette smokers.
  • Current use of electronic cigarettes was comparable to general population rates.
  • Many participants (76%) reported interest in quitting and willingness to try through patches/gum (56%) and technology-based (61%) approaches.

 

The researchers concluded that youth exiting foster care are at high risk for smoking and other tobacco product use, as well as dependence, yet are rarely screened for use or advised to quit.

 

Source: Braciszewski et al. (2019). Combustible Cigarette Smoking and Alternative Tobacco Use in a Sample of Youth Transitioning from Foster Care. Children and Youth Services Review, 96:231-236.

Less Than Half of Teachers Know What a JUUL Looks Like

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Electronic cigarette use, including JUUL, has risen to epidemic levels among high school and middle school students in the United States. Schools serve as a key environment for prevention and intervention efforts to address e-cigarette use, yet little is known about the awareness of and response to e-cigarettes in schools. A newly published study of middle and high school teachers and administrators (n = 1,420) measured JUUL awareness, e-cigarette policies, and barriers to enforcement in schools.

 

Findings included:

  • While two thirds of respondents had heard of a product called JUUL (68%), less than half accurately identified a photo of a JUUL as a vaping device/e-cigarette (47%).
  • Awareness of JUUL (81%) was higher among high school teachers (83%) than among middle school teachers (78%).
  • A large majority of respondents reported that their school had an e-cigarette policy (83%), but less than half of the sample worked in a school with a policy that specifically included JUUL (43%).
  • Those working in a school with an e-cigarette policy in place noted that e-cigarettes’ discreet appearance (66%) and difficulties in identifying origin of vapor or scent (46%) made the policy difficult to enforce.

 

The researchers concluded that efforts to increase middle and high school staff awareness of the ever-evolving e-cigarette market are essential to help prevent youth use.

 

Source: Schillo et al. (2019). JUUL in School: Teacher and Administrator Awareness and Policies of E-Cigarettes and JUUL in U.S. Middle and High Schools. Health Promotion Practice, Sept 18. [Epub ahead of print]

WEBINAR: “Tobacco Use in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders in California”

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December 5, 2019

12:00 – 1:00 pm PST

 

Guest Speakers: Cassandra Park and Rod Lew of SPARC (The Statewide Pacific Islander Asian American Resource and Coordinating Center)

Learning Objectives:
  • Understand the history of AANHPI populations in the United States
  • Identify the types of tobacco used by AANHPI populations
  • Recognize the need for disaggregated data among AANHPI subgroups
  • Identify strategies and challenges to engage the AANHPI population

 

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Cassandra Park

Cassandra “Cassie” Park, is a Program Associate for the APPEAL Statewide Pacific Islander and Asian American Resource and Coordinating Center (SPARC) program. She graduated from San Francisco State University (SF State) with a Bachelor’s Degree in Health Education and Minor in Race and Resistance Studies. Prior to working with APPEAL, Cassie served as the Program Coordinator for the Regional Pacific Islander Taskforce, a tri-county Pacific Islander health advisory group in the Bay Area. She was also a Peer Mentor for SF State’s Asian American and Pacific Islander Retention Education (ASPIRE) program. She is currently involved in the SF State Pacific Islander Initiatives Planning Group, which informs programming for Pacific Islander students and courses on campus. As a mixed Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian), Cassie is an advocate for the liberation and self-determination for all AANHPI communities in their homelands and on the continental US.
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Rod Lew

Rod Lew, MPH, is the Founder and Executive Director of APPEAL. Prior to APPEAL, Rod was the Health Education Director at Asian Health Services and the Associate Director for the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. Rod was a contributing author to the 1998 Surgeon General’s Report on Tobacco Use and has written and published widely on tobacco and health disparities. Rod provided testimony to the U.S. Congressional Committee on Commerce on the impact of national tobacco policy in 1999 and to the U.S. Surgeon General in 2004. He has also served on numerous national health advisory committees, including the State of California Tobacco Education and Research Oversight Committee (2000-2006), American Public Health Association (APHA) Equal Health Opportunity Committee (2005-6) and APHA Asian Pacific Islander Caucus, where he served as Chair (1998-2000). Rod was the 2002 recipient of the Christopher Jenkins Cancer Control Award. In 2009, he also received the Lester Breslow Lifetime Achievement Award from the UCLA School of Public Health, his alma mater.

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Did You Know? African American And Low SES Children With Asthma Have More Exposure To Passive Tobacco Smoke

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A newly published study examined the risk of asthma in children exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Researchers analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064).

Findings included:

  • The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003-2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013-2014 cycle.
  • Highly exposed asthmatic children were primarily Non-Hispanic Black and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines.
  • Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3-11 in the US decreased over the study period.
  • Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma.

 

The researchers concluded that targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.

 

Source: Zhang et al. (2018). Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children. Environmental Research, May 31;166:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.022. [Epub ahead of print]

Alternative Tobacco Product Use, Ownership of Tobacco Promotional Items, and Easy Access to Cigarettes Linked to Increased Smoking Susceptibility Among Youth

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A newly published study examined perceptions and behaviors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in the current tobacco landscape. Participants were 8th and 10th grade never-smokers of conventional cigarettes from Monitoring the Future surveys (2014-2016).

 

Findings included:

  • Among never-smokers of conventional cigarettes, 17% were susceptible to smoking, 6% were past 30-day alternative tobacco product users, and 4% owned tobacco promotional items.
  • Alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, and easy access to cigarettes were associated with increased likelihood of smoking susceptibility.
  • Perceived great influence by antismoking ads and higher perceived addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking were associated with lower odds of smoking susceptibility.

 

The researchers concluded that alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, easy access to cigarettes, low influence by antismoking ads, and low perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarettes are significant and actionable risk factors for smoking susceptibility among adolescents.

Source: Owotomo & Maslowsky (2018). Adolescent Smoking Susceptibility in the Current Tobacco Context: 2014-2016. American Journal of Health Behavior, May 1;42(3):102-113. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.42.3.10.