- Tobacco use was more prevalent among sexual minority-identified adults compared with heterosexual-identified adults.
- Tobacco use among sexual minorities was most prevalent among younger lesbian women and gay men, and all age groups of bisexual men and women.
- Tobacco use was significantly greater among sexual identity-attraction discordant women and significantly lower among sexual identity-attraction discordant men.
A recently published study examined patterns of cigarette smoking (current, former, never) by sociodemographic, household, and chronic disease characteristics and correlates among US adults receiving housing assistance from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) during 2007-2012.
- Overall, 48% of HUD-assisted adults were never smokers, 33% were current smokers, and 19% were former smokers.
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among adults aged 18 to 44 (54%) or 65 years or older (50%) than among adults aged 45 to 64 (38%).
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among women (51%) than men (41%).
- The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among Hispanic adults (59%) and non-Hispanic black adults (55%) than non-Hispanic white adults (37%)
Source: Wang et al. (2018). Characteristics and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking Status Among US Adults Receiving Federal Housing Assistance. Preventing Chronic Disease, Mar 22;15:E48. doi: 10.5888/pcd15.170395.
Did You Know? African American And Low SES Children With Asthma Have More Exposure To Passive Tobacco Smoke
A newly published study examined the risk of asthma in children exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Researchers analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064).
- The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003-2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013-2014 cycle.
- Highly exposed asthmatic children were primarily Non-Hispanic Black and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines.
- Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3-11 in the US decreased over the study period.
- Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma.
The researchers concluded that targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.
Source: Zhang et al. (2018). Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children. Environmental Research, May 31;166:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.022. [Epub ahead of print]
That Tobacco Cessation Programs May Want To Target Low SES Sexual Minorities Within A Context Of Co-Occurring Substance And Alcohol Use?
Cigarette smoking is substantially more prevalent and rates of smoking cessation are lower in low-SES adults. Financial strain may be one explanation for this. A newly published study assessed the link between financial strain, quit attempts, and successful smoking cessation among adult smokers in the U.S. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-2015) were analyzed.
- Smokers with financial strain made more quit attempts than smokers without financial strain, but financial strain was not associated with abstinence at follow-up.
- Low income was associated with less abstinence at follow-up.
- Smokers with baseline financial strain who quit at follow-up had lower odds of financial strain at follow-up.
The researchers concluded that financially strained smokers made slightly more quit attempts than non-strained smokers but were no more likely to successfully quit.
Source: Kalkhoran et al. (2018). Financial Strain, Quit Attempts, and Smoking Abstinence Among U.S. Adult Smokers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Apr 5. pii: S0749-3797(18)30068-0. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.01.036. [Epub ahead of print]
Read the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29628382
A newly published study sought to determine e-cigarette use prevalence and its relation to alcohol use as a potential gateway drug, and how this may differ by sex and ethnicity in a multi-ethnic sample of California adolescents. The researchers analyzed data from 1806 adolescents aged 12-17 in the 2014 and 2015 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) cycles.
- The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.1% overall in California adolescents but highest in boys among non-Hispanic Whites (15.1%) and in Asian girls (13.3%).
- Among e-cigarette users, 61.3% of boys and 71.0% of girls reported using alcohol as well.
The researchers concluded that attention needs to be paid to the high prevalence of e-cigarette smoking, as well as its potential as a gateway drug for alcohol drinking in adolescents.
Source: Wong & Fan, (2018). Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to alcohol use in California adolescents: the California Health Interview Survey. Public Health, Mar 7;157:147-152. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.019. [Epub ahead of print]
Get the abstract on Infohub
- LGBT reported significantly higher rates of past 30-day tobacco media exposure compared to non-LGBT, this effect was strongest among LGBT who were smokers.
- LGBT more frequently reported exposure to, searching for, or sharing messages related to tobacco couponing, e-cigarettes, and anti-tobacco on new or social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.) than did non-LGBT.
- Non-LGBT reported more exposure from traditional media sources such as television, most notably anti-tobacco messages.
- LGBT had higher odds of past 30-day use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cigars compared to non-LGBT.
The researchers concluded that LGBT (particularly LGBT smokers) are more likely to be exposed to and interact with tobacco-related messages on new and social media than their non-LGBT counterparts. Recommendations included that tobacco control must work toward reaching LGBT across a variety of media platforms, particularly new and social media outlets.
A newly published study analyzed tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians’/Alaska Natives’ unique sovereign status and culture. Researchers examined previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). The study found that tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes’ unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. In addition, tobacco companies exploited some Tribes’ existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective “youth smoking prevention” programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The authors concluded that the industry’s promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians/Alaska Natives. The researchers’ recommendations included that Tribal communities should consider policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease.
Source: Lempert & Glantz (2018). Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Mar 12. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty048. [Epub ahead of print]
A newly published study examined the impact of three state-level tobacco control policies (cigarette taxation, tobacco control spending, and smoke-free air (SFA) laws) on adult smoking rate overall and separately for adult subgroups in the U.S.
- State cigarette taxation is the only policy that significantly impacted smoking among the general adult population.
- Taxation was the only policy that significantly reduced smoking for some adult subgroups, including females, non-Hispanic Whites, adults aged 51 or older, and adults with more than a high school education.
- Other adult subgroups responded to the other two types of policies, either by mediating the taxation effect or by reducing smoking independently.
- Specifically, tobacco control spending reduced smoking among young adults (ages 18-25 years) and Hispanics. SFA laws affected smoking among men, young adults, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics.
The researchers concluded that state cigarette taxation is the single most important policy for reducing smoking among the general adult population. However, adult subgroups’ reactions to taxes are diverse and mediated by tobacco control spending and SFA laws.
Source: Yu et al. (2018). One size fits all? Disentangling the effects of tobacco taxes, laws, and control spending on adult subgroups in the US. Substance Abuse, Mar 7:1-30. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2018.1449050. [Epub ahead of print]