Did You Know? Tobacco Use More Prevalent Among Bisexual Adults And Sexual Identity-Attraction Discordant Women

A newly published study examined tobacco use among U.S. adults and variations by age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction concordance/discordance. Data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed.
Findings included:
  • Tobacco use was more prevalent among sexual minority-identified adults compared with heterosexual-identified adults.
  • Tobacco use among sexual minorities was most prevalent among younger lesbian women and gay men, and all age groups of bisexual men and women.
  • Tobacco use was significantly greater among sexual identity-attraction discordant women and significantly lower among sexual identity-attraction discordant men.
The researchers concluded that self-identified bisexual adults and sexual identity-attraction discordant women appear to be at higher risk for adverse smoking-related health consequences as a result of their elevated rates of cigarette smoking.
Source: McCabe et al. (2018). Tobacco Use and Sexual Orientation in a National Cross-sectional Study: Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Sexual Identity-Attraction Differences. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Apr 9. pii: S0749-3797(18)31636-2. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.03.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Study Highlights Smoking Patterns Among Adults Receiving Housing Assistance


A recently published study examined patterns of cigarette smoking (current, former, never) by sociodemographic, household, and chronic disease characteristics and correlates among US adults receiving housing assistance from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) during 2007-2012. 

Findings included:

  • Overall, 48% of HUD-assisted adults were never smokers, 33% were current smokers, and 19% were former smokers.
  • The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among adults aged 18 to 44 (54%) or 65 years or older (50%) than among adults aged 45 to 64 (38%).
  • The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among women (51%) than men (41%).
  • The percentage of never smokers was significantly higher among Hispanic adults (59%) and non-Hispanic black adults (55%) than non-Hispanic white adults (37%)


Source: Wang et al. (2018). Characteristics and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking Status Among US Adults Receiving Federal Housing Assistance. Preventing Chronic Disease, Mar 22;15:E48. doi: 10.5888/pcd15.170395.


Did You Know? African American And Low SES Children With Asthma Have More Exposure To Passive Tobacco Smoke


A newly published study examined the risk of asthma in children exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Researchers analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064).

Findings included:

  • The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003-2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013-2014 cycle.
  • Highly exposed asthmatic children were primarily Non-Hispanic Black and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines.
  • Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3-11 in the US decreased over the study period.
  • Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma.

 The researchers concluded that targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.


Source: Zhang et al. (2018). Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children. Environmental Research, May 31;166:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.022. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Smoking Cessation Could Improve HIV Outcomes For Sexual Minority Men With HIV

Cigarette smoking is particularly harmful for sexual minority men living with HIV. A newly published study examined the benefits of quitting by examining relationships between smoking and sustained HIV RNA suppression, recent CD4 count, ART medication adherence, and engagement in HIV medical care. Sexual minority men (n = 346), former or current smokers, received HIV care at a community health center. Most patients were Caucasian (87%), 148 (46%) had incomes below the poverty level and 80% had sustained HIV RNA suppression. Compared to current smokers, former smokers had increased odds of sustaining HIV RNA suppression, of reporting > 90% treatment adherence, and were less likely to miss appointments. Heavier smokers and patients who smoked the longest had reduced odds of sustaining HIV RNA suppression. The researchers concluded that smoking assessment, treatment, and referral could augment HIV outcomes for sexual minority men with HIV.
Source: King et al. (2018). Treatment Outcomes Associated with Quitting Cigarettes Among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV: Antiretroviral Adherence, Engagement in Care, and Sustained HIV RNA Suppression. AIDS and Behavior, Apr 21. doi: 10.1007/s10461-018-2116-3. [Epub ahead of print]



That Tobacco Cessation Programs May Want To Target Low SES Sexual Minorities Within A Context Of Co-Occurring Substance And Alcohol Use?

Cigarette smoking is substantially more prevalent and rates of smoking cessation are lower in low-SES adults. Financial strain may be one explanation for this. A newly published study assessed the link between financial strain, quit attempts, and successful smoking cessation among adult smokers in the U.S. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-2015) were analyzed.

Findings included:

  • Smokers with financial strain made more quit attempts than smokers without financial strain, but financial strain was not associated with abstinence at follow-up.
  • Low income was associated with less abstinence at follow-up.
  • Smokers with baseline financial strain who quit at follow-up had lower odds of financial strain at follow-up.

The researchers concluded that financially strained smokers made slightly more quit attempts than non-strained smokers but were no more likely to successfully quit.

Source: Kalkhoran et al. (2018). Financial Strain, Quit Attempts, and Smoking Abstinence Among U.S. Adult Smokers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Apr 5. pii: S0749-3797(18)30068-0. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.01.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Read the abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29628382

Did You Know? Black-Latinos Are More Likely To Smoke Menthol Cigarettes Compared to White-Latinos

Using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS), a newly published study examined the relationship between race and smoking behaviors among Latinos/Hispanics. The study sample included 505 Black-Latinos and 9078 White-Latinos. While no racial differences were found in lifetime smoking status among Latinos, Black-Latinos had a 17% increased risk of menthol smoking compared to White-Latinos. The researchers concluded that menthol consumption is influenced by race among Hispanics/Latinos. In order to address racial disparities among Latinos/Hispanics, further attention needs to be given to racial differences in smoking-related risks among Latinos/Hispanics.
Source: Cuevas et al. (2018). Assessing racial differences in lifetime and current smoking status & menthol consumption among Latinos in a nationally representative sample. Ethnicity & HealthMar 14:1-17. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2018.1447651. [Epub ahead of print]
Read Abstract here 

Did You Know? Among California Youth, Prevalence of E-Cigarette Use is Highest Among Non-Hispanic White Boys and Asian Girls


A newly published study sought to determine e-cigarette use prevalence and its relation to alcohol use as a potential gateway drug, and how this may differ by sex and ethnicity in a multi-ethnic sample of California adolescents. The researchers analyzed data from 1806 adolescents aged 12-17 in the 2014 and 2015 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) cycles.

Findings included:

  • The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.1% overall in California adolescents but highest in boys among non-Hispanic Whites (15.1%) and in Asian girls (13.3%).
  • Among e-cigarette users, 61.3% of boys and 71.0% of girls reported using alcohol as well.

The researchers concluded that attention needs to be paid to the high prevalence of e-cigarette smoking, as well as its potential as a gateway drug for alcohol drinking in adolescents.

Source: Wong & Fan, (2018). Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to alcohol use in California adolescents: the California Health Interview Survey. Public Health, Mar 7;157:147-152. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Get the abstract on Infohub

Literature Review Of Characteristics Of Adolescent E-Cigarette Users
A newly published article reviewed the existing e-cigarette literature for the characteristics of adolescents most likely to become e-cigarette users. A total of 100 articles were found, and 25 were finally included in the present review. The researchers found that older age, male gender, conventional smokers, peer influence, daily smoking, and heavier smoking are the most common characteristics of adolescent e-cigarette users. Since e-cigarette use is increasing and considering that the long-term health effects are still under investigation, targeted interventions towards more susceptible individuals may be an effective prevention strategy.
Source: Perikleous et al. (2018). E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents: An Overview of the Literature and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in Public Health, Mar 26;6:86. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00086.
Get the paper on Infohub

Did You Know? – LGBT Smokers Have More Exposure to Tobacco-Related Messages on Social Media?

A newly published study (Nicotine & Tobacco Research, March 2018) study explored whether exposure to tobacco content on traditional and social media is associated with tobacco use among LGBT and non-LGBT. Researchers analyzed data from LGBT (N=1,092) and non-LGBT (N=16,430) respondents to a 2013 nationally representative cross-sectional online survey of US adults (N=17,522).
Findings included:
  • LGBT reported significantly higher rates of past 30-day tobacco media exposure compared to non-LGBT, this effect was strongest among LGBT who were smokers.
  • LGBT more frequently reported exposure to, searching for, or sharing messages related to tobacco couponing, e-cigarettes, and anti-tobacco on new or social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.) than did non-LGBT.
  • Non-LGBT reported more exposure from traditional media sources such as television, most notably anti-tobacco messages.
  • LGBT had higher odds of past 30-day use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and cigars compared to non-LGBT.

The researchers concluded that LGBT (particularly LGBT smokers) are more likely to be exposed to and interact with tobacco-related messages on new and social media than their non-LGBT counterparts. Recommendations included that tobacco control must work toward reaching LGBT across a variety of media platforms, particularly new and social media outlets.

Source: Emory et al. (2018). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) view it differently than non-LGBT: Exposure to tobacco-related couponing, e-cigarette advertisements, and anti-tobacco messages on social and traditional media. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Mar 12. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty049. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Secret Tobacco Industry Documents Show that Tobacco Companies Targeted American Indians/Alaska Natives


A newly published study analyzed tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians’/Alaska Natives’ unique sovereign status and culture. Researchers examined previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). The study found that tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes’ unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. In addition, tobacco companies exploited some Tribes’ existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective “youth smoking prevention” programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The authors concluded that the industry’s promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians/Alaska Natives. The researchers’ recommendations included that Tribal communities should consider policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease.

Source: Lempert & Glantz (2018). Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Mar 12. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty048. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Tobacco Control Spending Can Reduce Smoking Among Hispanics


A newly published study examined the impact of three state-level tobacco control policies (cigarette taxation, tobacco control spending, and smoke-free air (SFA) laws) on adult smoking rate overall and separately for adult subgroups in the U.S.

Findings included:

  • State cigarette taxation is the only policy that significantly impacted smoking among the general adult population.
  • Taxation was the only policy that significantly reduced smoking for some adult subgroups, including females, non-Hispanic Whites, adults aged 51 or older, and adults with more than a high school education.
  • Other adult subgroups responded to the other two types of policies, either by mediating the taxation effect or by reducing smoking independently.
  • Specifically, tobacco control spending reduced smoking among young adults (ages 18-25 years) and Hispanics. SFA laws affected smoking among men, young adults, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics.

The researchers concluded that state cigarette taxation is the single most important policy for reducing smoking among the general adult population. However, adult subgroups’ reactions to taxes are diverse and mediated by tobacco control spending and SFA laws.

Source: Yu et al. (2018). One size fits all? Disentangling the effects of tobacco taxes, laws, and control spending on adult subgroups in the US. Substance Abuse, Mar 7:1-30. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2018.1449050. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Innovation in Technology-Based Assessments of Tobacco Use Among Pacific Islanders

unnamedRecent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. In order to address this issue, a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) system capable of measuring cigarette use among Pacific Islanders in Southern California was developed. A feasibility study assessed whether Pacific Islanders would respond to this method of measurement and whether the data gathered would lead to novel insights regarding the intrapersonal, social, and ecological factors associated with cigarette use. The feasibility study included 20 young adult smokers in Southern California who self-identified as Pacific Islanders and agreed to take part in a 7-day EMA study.  Using this approach, 720 surveys were completed from 840 survey time blocks, representing a completion rate of 86%. After adjusting for gender, age, and nicotine dependence, feeling happy or wanting a cigarette while drinking alcohol was positively associated with cigarette use. Being at home or being around people who are not smoking was negatively associated with cigarette use. The researchers concluded that such customized systems can be used to conduct technology-based assessments of tobacco use among Pacific Islanders.
Source: Pike et al. (2016). Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure
Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary
Assessment Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 4(1),e2.

Did You Know? Striking Differences in Tobacco Use Prevalence and Tobacco Product Preferences among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs)

Data from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey were analyzed to examine differences in prevalence and consumption of various tobacco products among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). 
Findings included: 
·         Ever use of cigarettes ranged from as low as 9% among Vietnamese respondents to as high as 48% among NHPIs.
·         Current use of cigarettes was least prevalent among Chinese (5%), Asian Indians (6%) and Vietnamese (7%) and most prevalent among Filipinos (14%), Koreans (15%), Japanese (19%) and NHPIs (20%). 
·         Current cigarette smoking was also more prevalent in males versus females in all ethnic groups except Chinese. Sex disparities in current cigarette smoking were most notable among Vietnamese and Asian Indians (with almost all male smokers), and among Koreans (approx. 17 point difference in smoking prevalence between males and females).
·         Preference for menthol cigarettes was slightly higher for AA and NHPI cigarette smokers overall (39%) compared to non AA and NHPI smokers (36%), and was particularly high for Filipino and NHPI cigarette smokers (45% and 46%, respectively). 
·         The prevalence of current hookah use varied greatly by ethnicity (ranging from as low as 0.4% among Filipinos to 14.6% among Koreans). 
·         Current cigar use was highest among NHPI (10%) and Japanese (8%) males.
·         Ever use of smokeless tobacco use was notably high among Japanese (42%) and NHPI males (29%).
The researchers concluded that community-based and regulatory approaches should be employed to reduce use of all tobacco products, especially among high prevalence subgroups.
Source: Mukherjea et al (2014). Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Tobacco Use Patterns. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(3): 362–369.