MEET JACK WAXMAN
Jack Waxman is a sophomore at Cornell University. He is the creator of Juulers Against Juul, and has appeared on Good Morning America, Good Day NY, BBC, and NPR. He worked for Senator Chuck Schumer on issues related to public health. He is currently an Ambassador for Truth Initiative, the leading tobacco control organization.
CHECK OUT WHAT HE IS DOING FOR THE COMMUNITY IN HIS VIDEO
A recently published study examined the relationships between flavored tobacco use and single, dual, and poly tobacco product use, among adolescents. Data were obtained from the 2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 2,329 adolescent past 30-day tobacco users.
· Approximately half of all adolescent tobacco users (49%) reported use of more than one product.
· The majority of adolescent tobacco users reported using flavors (73%).
· Flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of dual and poly tobacco use, relative to single product use.
· Similarly, flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of poly tobacco use, relative to dual tobacco use.
The researchers concluded that there is a positive relationship between flavored tobacco use and multiple tobacco product use. Recommendations included stronger regulations of flavored tobacco products and the need to emphasize flavored tobacco use in prevention and education programs.
Source: Mantey et al. (2018). Flavored tobacco use is associated with dual and poly tobacco use among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, Dec 27;92:84-88. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study assessed whether tobacco policy, program, and communication evidence-based practice implementation is associated with employee tobacco outcomes (current smoking; quit attempt; smokeless tobacco (SLT) use; and perceived worksite support for cessation) at small low-wage worksites. The study found that communication practice implementation was associated with better perceived worksite support for cessation. Policy and program implementation were associated with increased odds of being a current SLT user.
Tobacco communication evidence-based practice implementation was associated with favorable perceptions of worksite support for cessation; more may be needed to change tobacco use behavior.
Source: Kava et al. (2019). Tobacco Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Employee Tobacco-Related Outcomes at Small Low-Wage Worksites. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr 19. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001618. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study examined changes in cigarette prevalence and quit ratios over 15 years by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files.
- 19% of NH White persons were daily smokers in 2016; this prevalence was significantly higher than all other groups (NH Black 11%, Hispanic 7%, NH Other 9%).
- Menthol use was significantly more common among NH Black individuals than all other groups in every year from 2002 to 2016 (2016: NH Black 23%, NH White 15%, Hispanic 10%, NH Other 9%).
- From 2002 to 2016, daily and nondaily smoking decreased significantly among all groups.
- The rate of decline of nondaily smoking was more rapid among Hispanic than NH White individuals while the rate of menthol smoking decline was more rapid among NH White than among Hispanic individuals.
- The quit ratio did not change significantly from 2002 to 2016 among NH Black individuals (31% to 35%) in contrast to a significant increase among NH White (2002, 45%; 2016, 50%) and Hispanic (2002, 33%; 2016, 41%) individuals.
Source: Weinberger et al. (2019). Racial/ethnic differences in daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and smoking quit ratios in the United States: 2002 to 2016. Preventive Medicine, Apr 17. pii: S0091-7435(19)30133-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]
In a recently published study heterogeneity in tobacco-use behaviors among U.S. blacks by global region of origin and age at immigration was examined. Self-identified black participants from the 2006-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were included (n = 47,857). Countries of origin were classified by global regions (U.S., Africa, Europe, West Indies).
- Prevalence of current cigarette smoking among U.S. blacks varied significantly by global region of origin (U.S.-born = 17%, Europe-born = 18%, Africa-born = 5%, West-Indies-born = 5%).
- Foreign-born blacks were less likely than U.S.-born blacks to smoke menthol flavored cigarettes.
- Participants who immigrated to the U.S. at ≥ 13 years old were less likely than U.S.-born blacks to start regular smoking as minor.
Source: Saint-Fort & Choi (2019). Heterogeneity in Tobacco-Use Behaviors Among U.S. Blacks per Global Region of Origin. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s10903-019-00865-x. [Epub ahead of print]
Tobacco studies often combine data for Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (AANHOPI) subgroups, masking subgroup differences. A newly published study describes tobacco use (ever use and past 30-day use) among some disaggregated AANHOPI subgroups. Data from Wave 1 of the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were analyzed. The dataset contains a sample of 32,320 adults, of which 1623 identified as being of AANHOPI origin. Asian Americans further identified as being Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or other Asian. Those who identified as Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamarro, Samoan, and Other Pacific Islander were combined into an NHOPI group.
· Asian Indians and Chinese had the lowest and NHOPI had the highest tobacco use prevalence compared to other AANHOPI subgroups.
· Males generally had higher prevalence compared to females.
· Prevalence varied by AANHOPI membership and tobacco product.
Tobacco use varies by AANHOPI subgroup and product type. Tobacco use differences in AANHOPI subgroups may be attributed to socio-economic status differences. The researcher concluded that treating these distinct subgroups as a monolithic group may contribute to reliance on tobacco prevention and control strategies that may have limited impact on specific subgroups.
Nguyen (2019). Disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (AANHOPI) Adult Tobacco Use: Findings from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s40615-018-00532-1. [Epub ahead of print]
Water pipe with smoke
A newly published study assessed the contribution of substance use and stress/traumatic events to hookah use among African American college students (n = 1,402).
· Lifetime hookah use was 25%, with 34% of lifetime users having done so in the past 30 days.
· Compared to nonusers, hookah users had significantly higher use rates of alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco, and other drugs.
· Hookah use was more likely among those with cumulative stress, yet less likely among older students.
The researchers concluded that prevention messages may need to be tailored for African American college students and particularly target younger students, substance users, and those with cumulative stress.
Source: Cunningham-Williams et al. (2018). Stress, stressors, and substance use: Differential risk for hookah use among African American college students. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, Oct 22:1-22. doi: 10.1080/15332640.2018.1511492. [Epub ahead of print]
Smoking cessation may promote long-term recovery in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Yet smoking rates remain alarmingly high in this population. A recently published study examined smoking rates among hospitalized patients with SUD at a large safety-net hospital, and then characterized factors associated with smoking behaviors. Researchers analyzed data from all hospital admissions (7/2016-6/2017) and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 hospitalized SUD smokers.
- Prevalence of cigarette smoking among hospitalized smokers with SUD was three times higher than those without SUD.
- Qualitative analyses showed that patients perceived that smoking cigarettes was a less serious concern than other substances.
- Some patients feared that quitting cigarettes could negatively impact their recovery and perceived that clinicians do not prioritize treating tobacco dependence.
- Almost all patients with heroin use disorder described how cigarette use potentiated their heroin high.
- Many SUD patients are turning to vaping and e-cigarettes to quit smoking.
The researchers concluded that hospitalized patients with SUD have disproportionately high smoking rates and perceive multiple barriers to quitting cigarettes. Smoking cessation interventions with this population should take into account how patients with SUD perceive smoking-related health risks and how that influences their decision to quit smoking.
Source: Kathuria et al. (2019). Perceived barriers to quitting cigarettes among hospitalized smokers with substance use disorders: A mixed methods study. Addictive Behaviors, Feb 18;95:41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.02.017. [Epub ahead of print]
A newly published study examined the characteristics and risk factors for preterm birth in Hawaiian and Pacific Islander women. Data from 10,470 women of Hawaiian or Pacific Islander descent in California were analyzed. Hawaiian/Pacific Islander women were at higher risk for preterm birth when they had fewer than three prenatal visits; were underweight, reported tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs use in pregnancy; had a diagnosis of anemia, gestational diabetes, preexisting diabetes, or hypertension with or without pre-eclampsia; or had a history of previous preterm birth.
Source: Altman et al. (2018). Patterns of Preterm Birth among Women of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Descent. American Journal of Perinatology, Dec 21. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676487. [Epub ahead of print]
Lower rates of successful quitting among low-income populations in the United States may be from slower dissemination of smoke-free homes, a predictor of cessation. A recently published study explored the role of smoke-free homes in cessation behavior across income levels. Researchers analyzed data from the 2002-2003 (n = 2801) and 2010-2011 (n = 2723) Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey.
- Between the two surveys, heavy smoking (≥ 1 pack/day) declined by 17%, and smoking prevalence declined by 15% among those with higher-incomes.
- Although similar in 2002, the prevalence of smoke-free homes was 33% lower among individuals living <300% FPL than those living ≥300% FPL.
- Whereas smoking ≥ 1 pack/ day was associated with lower odds of 30+ days abstinence, having a higher income and a smoke-free home were associated with greater odds of 30+ day abstinence.
The researchers concluded that increasing the diffusion of smoke-free homes among low-income populations may attenuate at least a third of the income disparities in smoking cessation, highlighting the need for interventions to increase adoption of smoke-free homes among low-income households.
Source: Vijayaraghavan et al. (2018). Income disparities in smoking cessation and the diffusion of smoke-free homes among U.S. smokers: Results from two longitudinal surveys. PloS One, Jul 27;13(7):e0201467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201467. eCollection 2018.