A newly published study examined whether adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns over time differ by ethnicity. Data were pooled from three cohort studies of adolescents in California and Connecticut.
· Among non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants, ever e-cigarette or cigarette users at baseline (vs. never users) had significantly higher odds of past 30-day use tobacco use pattern at follow-up.
· Among Hispanic White (HW) participants, compared with never users, exclusive e-cigarette users at baseline had increased odds of continued e-cigarette use but not of transition to exclusive cigarette use at follow-up and HW exclusive cigarette users at baseline had greater odds of continued cigarette use but not of transition to exclusive e-cigarette use at follow-up.
Findings that NHW youth report more transitional use patterns and HW youth report more stable use patterns suggest a potential for differential impacts of e-cigarettes, by ethnicity, in increasing subsequent transition to or cessation from cigarette smoking.
Source: Barrington-Trimis et al. (2019). Ethnic Differences in Patterns of Cigarette and E-Cigarette Use Over Time Among Adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health, Jun 24. pii: S1054-139X(19)30199-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.04.002. [Epub ahead of print]
A newly published study examined how adolescents use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and compared youth who are only use ENDS and polytobacco users (ENDS and at least one other tobacco product). Researchers surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,517 13-25-year olds.
· 4.5% of adolescents and 10% of young adults reported past 30-day ENDS use.
· ENDS users were 38.8% female and 70.6% white.
· Over half (55.9%) were polytobacco ENDS users.
· The most common patterns of polytobacco ENDS use were ENDS and cigarettes (11.5%), ENDS and cigars (7.7%), and ENDS, cigars, and waterpipe (5.2%).
· Those who perceived ENDS to be less harmful than cigarettes were more likely to be exclusive ENDS users than those who perceived ENDS to be as or more harmful than cigarettes.
· There were no differences between ENDS groups on age, race, sex, parental education, sexual orientation, or ENDS use frequency.
The researchers concluded that the Food and Drug Administration is responsible for communicating product risk to consumers and should consider common patterns of use and relative risk perceptions in its ENDS public education efforts.
Source: King et al. (2018). Polytobacco Use Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent and Young Adult E-Cigarette Users. The Journal of Adolescent Health, Aug 13. pii: S1054-139X(18)30186-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]
A recently published study examined substance use disparities among sexual minority youth. The current subsample of 348,175 students participated in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) study from years 2005 to 2015.
· Female lesbian and bisexual youth were at risk of initiating substance use at younger ages and, among lifetime users, were more likely to persist in their tobacco and marijuana use over time, relative to sexually active female heterosexual youth.
· Among lifetime users, male youth with partners of both sexes were at greater risk of persistent use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and earlier ages of first use.
Source: Talley et al. (2019). Sexual Minority Youth at Risk of Early and Persistent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s10508-018-1275-7. [Epub ahead of print]
JUUL Called Before Congressional Subcommittee
On July 24 and 25, 2019, the Subcommittee on Economic and Consumer Policy, led by Chairman Raja Krishnamoorthi, held hearings to examine JUUL Labs, Inc.’s responsibility for the youth nicotine addiction epidemic.
Watch Part I and II of the hearings below:
Part I of the Congressional Hearings
Part II of the Congressional Hearings
Our LOOP Leaders Attended these Hearings!
Check out our very own Dr. Valerie Yerger and Carol McGruder who were present at the hearings. In fact, they were sitting in the very front row behind the JUUL co-founder. They were featured in the New York Times article photo (below).
MEET JACK WAXMAN
Jack Waxman is a sophomore at Cornell University. He is the creator of Juulers Against Juul, and has appeared on Good Morning America, Good Day NY, BBC, and NPR. He worked for Senator Chuck Schumer on issues related to public health. He is currently an Ambassador for Truth Initiative, the leading tobacco control organization.
CHECK OUT WHAT HE IS DOING FOR THE COMMUNITY IN HIS VIDEO
A recently published study examined the relationships between flavored tobacco use and single, dual, and poly tobacco product use, among adolescents. Data were obtained from the 2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 2,329 adolescent past 30-day tobacco users.
· Approximately half of all adolescent tobacco users (49%) reported use of more than one product.
· The majority of adolescent tobacco users reported using flavors (73%).
· Flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of dual and poly tobacco use, relative to single product use.
· Similarly, flavored tobacco use was significantly correlated with a greater risk of poly tobacco use, relative to dual tobacco use.
The researchers concluded that there is a positive relationship between flavored tobacco use and multiple tobacco product use. Recommendations included stronger regulations of flavored tobacco products and the need to emphasize flavored tobacco use in prevention and education programs.
Source: Mantey et al. (2018). Flavored tobacco use is associated with dual and poly tobacco use among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, Dec 27;92:84-88. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.12.028. [Epub ahead of print]
A newly published study assessed the contribution of substance use and stress/traumatic events to hookah use among African American college students (n = 1,402).
· Lifetime hookah use was 25%, with 34% of lifetime users having done so in the past 30 days.
· Compared to nonusers, hookah users had significantly higher use rates of alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco, and other drugs.
· Hookah use was more likely among those with cumulative stress, yet less likely among older students.
The researchers concluded that prevention messages may need to be tailored for African American college students and particularly target younger students, substance users, and those with cumulative stress.
Source: Cunningham-Williams et al. (2018). Stress, stressors, and substance use: Differential risk for hookah use among African American college students. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, Oct 22:1-22. doi: 10.1080/15332640.2018.1511492. [Epub ahead of print]
Young adults have high smoking rates and low utilization of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies. A recently published study investigated smoking cessation intentions, strategy use, and socioeconomic predictors of strategy use among young adult smokers (age 18-24) and compared patterns to those of older adults (age 25-64).
· Young adults planned to quit on a longer time frame, expressed lower interest in quitting, and were more confident they would be successful, compared to older adults.
· Young adults were significantly less likely to use pharmacotherapy.
· Both groups reported using product substitution, primarily with e-cigarettes, more than any evidence-based cessation strategy.
· Socioeconomic predictors of cessation strategy use did not differ between age groups.
The researchers concluded that more research on why young adult smokers underutilize evidence-based cessation support is needed, as are innovative efforts to increase intentions to quit and utilization of cessation assistance.
Source: Watkins et al. (2018). Cold Turkey and Hot Vapes? A national study of young adult cigarette cessation strategies. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Dec 26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty270. [Epub ahead of print]