Creating Smokefree Living Spaces For Non-Smoking Partners of Chinese American Smokers

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Chinese men smoke at high rates, and this puts household members at risk for tobacco-related diseases. A newly published qualitative study examines perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs in the Creating Smokefree Living Together Program.
Researchers conducted four focus groups with 30 Chinese American participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) who, in household pairs, completed smokefree education interventions of either brief or moderate intensity. 
 
Findings included:
·         There was a preference for dyadic and group interventions because of the support offered.
·         Increased knowledge of the health harms of smoke exposure within a pair improved the nonsmoker’s support for smokefree living.
·         Learning communication strategies improved household relationships and assertiveness for smokefree environments.
·         Biochemical feedback was useful but had short-term effects.
·         Project magnets provided cues to action.
 
The researchers concluded that involving household partners is critical to smokefree interventions. Simple reminders at home appear to be more powerful than personal biochemical feedback of smoke exposure for sustaining motivation and engagement in ongoing behavioral changes within the household. 
 
Source: Saw et al. (2018). Perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs about the creating smokefree living together program.
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Major Gaps In Tobacco Marketing Related Research Focusing On Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, Pregnant Women, LGBT Populations, And Those With Mental Health Or Medical Co-Morbidities

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A newly published paper reviewed the literature on pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns targeting eight vulnerable populations to determine key findings and research gaps.
Findings included:
  • There were 144 articles that met inclusion criteria on pro-tobacco marketing or anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at eight US groups: women of reproductive age, racial/ethnic minority groups (African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native), Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) populations, groups with low socioeconomic status, rural/inner city residents, military/veterans, and people with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • There were more studies on pro-tobacco marketing rather than anti-tobacco campaigns, and on cigarettes rather than other tobacco products.
  • Major gaps included studies on Asian Americans, American Indian/Alaska Natives, pregnant women, LGBT populations, and those with mental health or medical co-morbidities.
  • Gaps related to tobacco products were found for hookah, snus, and pipe/roll-your-own tobacco in the pro-tobacco studies, and for all products except cigarettes in anti-tobacco studies.
Source: Cruz et al. (2019). Pro-tobacco marketing and anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at vulnerable populations: A review of the literature. Tobacco Induced Diseases, Sep 18;17:68.

Did You Know? Youngest Teens (11-14) More Supportive of Tobacco 21

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Tobacco 21 (T21) is a population-based strategy to prevent tobacco initiation. A majority of U.S. youths support T21; however, the extent to which individual, interpersonal, and community factors influence T21 support is uncertain. A newly published study examined predictors of T21 support among U.S. youth. Data from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed.

 

Findings included:

·         Among nonusers, students least receptive to peer influence, those youngest in age (11-14 years) and those who believe tobacco is dangerous had higher odds of T21 support.

·         Among users, lower odds of T21 support were observed among those who purchased tobacco and accessed tobacco through social sources or other means in the past 30 days.

·         Younger tobacco users (11-14 years), black, non-Hispanic users, e-cigarette users, and users who believe that tobacco is dangerous had higher odds of T21 support.

 

The researchers concluded that low receptivity to peer influence and lack of access to tobacco products are associated with T21 support.

Source: Glover-Kudon et al. (2019). Association of Peer Influence and Access to Tobacco Products With U.S. Youths’ Support of Tobacco 21 Laws, 2015. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(2), 202-209.

Did You Know: Tobacco Industry Targets American Indians and Alaska Natives Through Emails

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Non-Hispanic American Indians and Alaska Natives (NH AI/AN) have the highest commercial tobacco use (CTU) among U.S. racial/ethnic groups. A newly published study examined prevalence of tobacco industry marketing exposure and correlates of CTU among NH AI/AN compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study were analyzed.

 

Findings included:

  • NH AI/AN had a higher prevalence of exposure to retail tobaccoads (65% vs 59%), mail (20% vs.14%) and email (17% vs.11%) marketing than NH Whites.
  • CTU was higher among NH AI/AN than NH Whites and among adults who reported exposure to tobacco ads, mail, and email marketing.

 

There is higher tobacco marketing exposure in stores and via mail for NH AI/AN. Email marketing exposure was higher, even after controlling for tobacco-related risk factors. The tobacco industry may be targeting NH AI/AN through emails, which include coupons and other marketing promotions.

 

Source: Carroll et al. (2019). Tobacco Industry Marketing Exposure and Commercial Tobacco Product Use Disparities among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Substance Use & Misuse, Sep 23:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Alternative Tobacco Product Use, Ownership of Tobacco Promotional Items, and Easy Access to Cigarettes Linked to Increased Smoking Susceptibility Among Youth

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A newly published study examined perceptions and behaviors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in the current tobacco landscape. Participants were 8th and 10th grade never-smokers of conventional cigarettes from Monitoring the Future surveys (2014-2016).

 

Findings included:

  • Among never-smokers of conventional cigarettes, 17% were susceptible to smoking, 6% were past 30-day alternative tobacco product users, and 4% owned tobacco promotional items.
  • Alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, and easy access to cigarettes were associated with increased likelihood of smoking susceptibility.
  • Perceived great influence by antismoking ads and higher perceived addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking were associated with lower odds of smoking susceptibility.

 

The researchers concluded that alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, easy access to cigarettes, low influence by antismoking ads, and low perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarettes are significant and actionable risk factors for smoking susceptibility among adolescents.

Source: Owotomo & Maslowsky (2018). Adolescent Smoking Susceptibility in the Current Tobacco Context: 2014-2016. American Journal of Health Behavior, May 1;42(3):102-113. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.42.3.10.

Study Findings Support the Healthy Immigrant Hypothesis

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A study published in February 2019 examined prevalence rates of alcohol, nicotine, and other drug use and major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, persistent depression, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, social and specific phobias, and antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders) between US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and between early entry versus later-entry foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed.
Findings included:
  • US-born Mexican Americans and US-born non-Hispanic whites were at greater risk of alcohol, nicotine, and any drug use and their associated disorders and other DSM-5 psychiatric disorders relative to their foreign-born counterparts.
  • Foreign-born Mexican Americans < 18 years old at immigration were at greater risk of drug use, drug use disorders, and nicotine use disorder compared with foreign-born Mexican Americans ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
  • Foreign-born non-Hispanic whites < 18 years old at immigration were more likely to use substances and to develop many psychiatric disorders relative to foreign-born non-Hispanic whites ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
The researchers concluded that the findings of this study support the healthy immigrant hypothesis and adverse role of acculturation for US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites.
Source: Kerridge et al. (2019). Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders Among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites by Immigration Status. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 21(1).

Immigrant, Black, and Hispanic Hospital Patients Less Likely To Be Prescribed Nicotine Replacement Therapy

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A recently published study explored the differences in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribing behavior by patient immigrant status. Data from patient surveys and electronic medical-record reviews were used to examine associations between immigrant status and prescription of NRT in-hospital and on discharge. The study population included 1,608 participants, of whom 21% were not born in the United States.

 

Findings included:

·         Nonimmigrants were more likely than immigrants to be prescribed NRT in the hospital and similarly on discharge.

·         Both groups were equally likely to accept NRT in-hospital when prescribed.

·         Being an immigrant, Black, and Hispanic were associated with lower likelihood of being prescribed NRT in-hospital.

·         Provision of NRT prescription at discharge showed no significant difference between immigrants and nonimmigrants.

 

Source: Chen et al. (2018). Disparities in hospital smoking cessation treatment by immigrant status. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, May 4:1-14.

Did You Know? Study Shows that Tobacco 21 Policies are Effective in Reducing Smoking Among 18-20 Year Olds

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States and municipalities are increasingly restricting tobacco sales to those under age-21, in an effort to reduce youth and young adult smoking. A recently published study examined the effectiveness of such policies. Researchers analyzed 2011 – 2016 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System’s Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends dataset.

 

Findings included:

·         Current smoking rates fell from 16.5 percent in 2011 to 8.9 percent in 2016 among 18-20 year-olds in these data.

·         A tobacco-21 policy covering one’s entire metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) yields an approximately 3.1 percentage point reduction in 18 to 20 year-olds’ likelihoods of smoking.

·         Accounting for partial policy exposure – tobacco-21 laws implemented in some but not all jurisdictions within an MMSA implies that the average exposed 18 to 20 year-old experienced a 1.2 percentage point drop in their likelihood of being a smoker.

 

The researchers concluded that local tobacco-21 policies yield a substantive reduction in smoking among 18 to 20 year-olds living in metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. This finding provides empirical support for efforts to raise the tobacco purchasing age to 21 as a means to reduce young adult smoking. Moreover, it suggests that state laws preempting local tobacco-21 policies may impede public health.

 

Source: Friedman & Wu (2019). Do Local Tobacco-21 Laws Reduce Smoking among 18 to 20 Year-Olds? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Jul 26. pii: ntz123. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz123. [Epub ahead of print]

Missed the JUUL Hearings? Watch the Videos Below! Plus, LOOP Leaders Attended the Hearings

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JUUL Called Before Congressional Subcommittee

On July 24 and 25, 2019, the Subcommittee on Economic and Consumer Policy, led by Chairman Raja Krishnamoorthi, held hearings to examine JUUL Labs, Inc.’s responsibility for the youth nicotine addiction epidemic.

 

Watch Part I and II of the hearings below:

Part I of the Congressional Hearings

 

Part II of the Congressional Hearings

 

Our LOOP Leaders Attended these Hearings!

Check out our very own Dr. Valerie Yerger and Carol McGruder who were present at the hearings. In fact, they were sitting in the very front row behind the JUUL co-founder. They were featured in the New York Times article photo (below).

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