Alternative Tobacco Product Use, Ownership of Tobacco Promotional Items, and Easy Access to Cigarettes Linked to Increased Smoking Susceptibility Among Youth

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A newly published study examined perceptions and behaviors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in the current tobacco landscape. Participants were 8th and 10th grade never-smokers of conventional cigarettes from Monitoring the Future surveys (2014-2016).

 

Findings included:

  • Among never-smokers of conventional cigarettes, 17% were susceptible to smoking, 6% were past 30-day alternative tobacco product users, and 4% owned tobacco promotional items.
  • Alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, and easy access to cigarettes were associated with increased likelihood of smoking susceptibility.
  • Perceived great influence by antismoking ads and higher perceived addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking were associated with lower odds of smoking susceptibility.

 

The researchers concluded that alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, easy access to cigarettes, low influence by antismoking ads, and low perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarettes are significant and actionable risk factors for smoking susceptibility among adolescents.

Source: Owotomo & Maslowsky (2018). Adolescent Smoking Susceptibility in the Current Tobacco Context: 2014-2016. American Journal of Health Behavior, May 1;42(3):102-113. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.42.3.10.

Study Findings Support the Healthy Immigrant Hypothesis

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A study published in February 2019 examined prevalence rates of alcohol, nicotine, and other drug use and major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, persistent depression, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, social and specific phobias, and antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders) between US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and between early entry versus later-entry foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed.
Findings included:
  • US-born Mexican Americans and US-born non-Hispanic whites were at greater risk of alcohol, nicotine, and any drug use and their associated disorders and other DSM-5 psychiatric disorders relative to their foreign-born counterparts.
  • Foreign-born Mexican Americans < 18 years old at immigration were at greater risk of drug use, drug use disorders, and nicotine use disorder compared with foreign-born Mexican Americans ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
  • Foreign-born non-Hispanic whites < 18 years old at immigration were more likely to use substances and to develop many psychiatric disorders relative to foreign-born non-Hispanic whites ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
The researchers concluded that the findings of this study support the healthy immigrant hypothesis and adverse role of acculturation for US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites.
Source: Kerridge et al. (2019). Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders Among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites by Immigration Status. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 21(1).

Immigrant, Black, and Hispanic Hospital Patients Less Likely To Be Prescribed Nicotine Replacement Therapy

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A recently published study explored the differences in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribing behavior by patient immigrant status. Data from patient surveys and electronic medical-record reviews were used to examine associations between immigrant status and prescription of NRT in-hospital and on discharge. The study population included 1,608 participants, of whom 21% were not born in the United States.

 

Findings included:

·         Nonimmigrants were more likely than immigrants to be prescribed NRT in the hospital and similarly on discharge.

·         Both groups were equally likely to accept NRT in-hospital when prescribed.

·         Being an immigrant, Black, and Hispanic were associated with lower likelihood of being prescribed NRT in-hospital.

·         Provision of NRT prescription at discharge showed no significant difference between immigrants and nonimmigrants.

 

Source: Chen et al. (2018). Disparities in hospital smoking cessation treatment by immigrant status. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, May 4:1-14.

Did You Know? Study Shows that Tobacco 21 Policies are Effective in Reducing Smoking Among 18-20 Year Olds

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States and municipalities are increasingly restricting tobacco sales to those under age-21, in an effort to reduce youth and young adult smoking. A recently published study examined the effectiveness of such policies. Researchers analyzed 2011 – 2016 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System’s Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends dataset.

 

Findings included:

·         Current smoking rates fell from 16.5 percent in 2011 to 8.9 percent in 2016 among 18-20 year-olds in these data.

·         A tobacco-21 policy covering one’s entire metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) yields an approximately 3.1 percentage point reduction in 18 to 20 year-olds’ likelihoods of smoking.

·         Accounting for partial policy exposure – tobacco-21 laws implemented in some but not all jurisdictions within an MMSA implies that the average exposed 18 to 20 year-old experienced a 1.2 percentage point drop in their likelihood of being a smoker.

 

The researchers concluded that local tobacco-21 policies yield a substantive reduction in smoking among 18 to 20 year-olds living in metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. This finding provides empirical support for efforts to raise the tobacco purchasing age to 21 as a means to reduce young adult smoking. Moreover, it suggests that state laws preempting local tobacco-21 policies may impede public health.

 

Source: Friedman & Wu (2019). Do Local Tobacco-21 Laws Reduce Smoking among 18 to 20 Year-Olds? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Jul 26. pii: ntz123. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz123. [Epub ahead of print]

Missed the JUUL Hearings? Watch the Videos Below! Plus, LOOP Leaders Attended the Hearings

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JUUL Called Before Congressional Subcommittee

On July 24 and 25, 2019, the Subcommittee on Economic and Consumer Policy, led by Chairman Raja Krishnamoorthi, held hearings to examine JUUL Labs, Inc.’s responsibility for the youth nicotine addiction epidemic.

 

Watch Part I and II of the hearings below:

Part I of the Congressional Hearings

 

Part II of the Congressional Hearings

 

Our LOOP Leaders Attended these Hearings!

Check out our very own Dr. Valerie Yerger and Carol McGruder who were present at the hearings. In fact, they were sitting in the very front row behind the JUUL co-founder. They were featured in the New York Times article photo (below).

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MEET JACK WAXMAN

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MEET JACK WAXMAN

Jack Waxman is a sophomore at Cornell University. He is the creator of Juulers Against Juul, and has appeared on Good Morning America, Good Day NY, BBC, and NPR. He worked for Senator Chuck Schumer on issues related to public health. He is currently an Ambassador for Truth Initiative, the leading tobacco control organization.

 

CHECK OUT WHAT HE IS DOING FOR THE COMMUNITY IN HIS VIDEO

Did You Know? Between 2002 – 2016, the Tobacco Quit Ratio Did Not Increase for African Americans, but Increased for White and Hispanic Smokers

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A recently published study examined changes in cigarette prevalence and quit ratios over 15 years by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files.
Findings included:
  • 19% of NH White persons were daily smokers in 2016; this prevalence was significantly higher than all other groups (NH Black 11%, Hispanic 7%, NH Other 9%).
  • Menthol use was significantly more common among NH Black individuals than all other groups in every year from 2002 to 2016 (2016: NH Black 23%, NH White 15%, Hispanic 10%, NH Other 9%).
  • From 2002 to 2016, daily and nondaily smoking decreased significantly among all groups.
  • The rate of decline of nondaily smoking was more rapid among Hispanic than NH White individuals while the rate of menthol smoking decline was more rapid among NH White than among Hispanic individuals.
  • The quit ratio did not change significantly from 2002 to 2016 among NH Black individuals (31% to 35%) in contrast to a significant increase among NH White (2002, 45%; 2016, 50%) and Hispanic (2002, 33%; 2016, 41%) individuals.
Source: Weinberger et al. (2019). Racial/ethnic differences in daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and smoking quit ratios in the United States: 2002 to 2016. Preventive Medicine, Apr 17. pii: S0091-7435(19)30133-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Did You Know? Neighborhood Poverty Linked to Tobacco Retailer Density and Prevalence of Smoking

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A recently published study explored the effect of tobacco retailer density, neighborhood poverty, and housing type (multiunit and public) on smoking in a large urban environment (New York City). Researchers analyzed data on smoking prevalence and individual sociodemographic characteristics from the 2011-2013 New York City Community Health Survey, data on tobacco retailers from the 2012 New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, data on neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and population density from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, and data on multiunit and public housing from the 2012 New York City Primary Land Use Tax Lot Output data set.

 

Findings included:

  • Neighborhood poverty positively and significantly modified the association between tobacco retailer density and prevalence of neighborhood smoking.
  • Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with the prevalence of individual smoking.

 

Source: Farley et al. (2019). The Influence of Tobacco Retailer Density and Poverty on Tobacco Use in a Densely Populated Urban Environment. Public Health Reports, Mar/Apr;134(2):164-171. doi: 10.1177/0033354918824330. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Did You Know? Strong Local Tobacco Retail Licensing Ordinances Linked to Lower Tobacco Use among Youth

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Restricting youth access to tobacco is a central feature of US tobacco regulatory policy, but impact of local tobacco retail licensing (TRL) regulation on cigarette smoking rates remains uncertain. A newly published study examined the effects of TRL on other tobacco product use and use as adolescents reach the age to legally purchase tobacco products. Prevalences of ever and past 30-day cigarette, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), cigar, and hookah use were assessed in a survey of a cohort of 1553 11th- and 12th-grade adolescents. An American Lung Association (2014) youth access grade was assigned to each of 14 political jurisdictions in which participants lived on the basis of the strength of the local TRL ordinance.

 

Findings included:

·         At baseline, participants living in 4 jurisdictions with “A” grades (ie, with most restrictive ordinances) had lower odds of ever cigarette use and past 30-day use than participants in 10 D- to F-grade jurisdictions.

·         At follow-up at legal age of purchase, lower odds of cigarette use initiation occurred in jurisdictions with stronger TRL policy.

·         Lower odds of e-cigarette initiation at follow-up and of initiation with past 30-day use were also associated with better regulation.

 

The researchers concluded that strong local TRL ordinance may lower rates of cigarette and e-cigarette use among youth and young adults.

 

Source: Astor et al. (2019). Tobacco Retail Licensing and Youth Product Use. Pediatrics, Jan 7. pii: e20173536. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-3536. [Epub ahead of print]