A newly published study examined the characteristics and risk factors for preterm birth in Hawaiian and Pacific Islander women. Data from 10,470 women of Hawaiian or Pacific Islander descent in California were analyzed. Hawaiian/Pacific Islander women were at higher risk for preterm birth when they had fewer than three prenatal visits; were underweight, reported tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs use in pregnancy; had a diagnosis of anemia, gestational diabetes, preexisting diabetes, or hypertension with or without pre-eclampsia; or had a history of previous preterm birth.
Source: Altman et al. (2018). Patterns of Preterm Birth among Women of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Descent. American Journal of Perinatology, Dec 21. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1676487. [Epub ahead of print]
Lower rates of successful quitting among low-income populations in the United States may be from slower dissemination of smoke-free homes, a predictor of cessation. A recently published study explored the role of smoke-free homes in cessation behavior across income levels. Researchers analyzed data from the 2002-2003 (n = 2801) and 2010-2011 (n = 2723) Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey.
- Between the two surveys, heavy smoking (≥ 1 pack/day) declined by 17%, and smoking prevalence declined by 15% among those with higher-incomes.
- Although similar in 2002, the prevalence of smoke-free homes was 33% lower among individuals living <300% FPL than those living ≥300% FPL.
- Whereas smoking ≥ 1 pack/ day was associated with lower odds of 30+ days abstinence, having a higher income and a smoke-free home were associated with greater odds of 30+ day abstinence.
The researchers concluded that increasing the diffusion of smoke-free homes among low-income populations may attenuate at least a third of the income disparities in smoking cessation, highlighting the need for interventions to increase adoption of smoke-free homes among low-income households.
Source: Vijayaraghavan et al. (2018). Income disparities in smoking cessation and the diffusion of smoke-free homes among U.S. smokers: Results from two longitudinal surveys. PloS One, Jul 27;13(7):e0201467. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201467. eCollection 2018.
Young adults have high smoking rates and low utilization of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies. A recently published study investigated smoking cessation intentions, strategy use, and socioeconomic predictors of strategy use among young adult smokers (age 18-24) and compared patterns to those of older adults (age 25-64).
· Young adults planned to quit on a longer time frame, expressed lower interest in quitting, and were more confident they would be successful, compared to older adults.
· Young adults were significantly less likely to use pharmacotherapy.
· Both groups reported using product substitution, primarily with e-cigarettes, more than any evidence-based cessation strategy.
· Socioeconomic predictors of cessation strategy use did not differ between age groups.
The researchers concluded that more research on why young adult smokers underutilize evidence-based cessation support is needed, as are innovative efforts to increase intentions to quit and utilization of cessation assistance.
Source: Watkins et al. (2018). Cold Turkey and Hot Vapes? A national study of young adult cigarette cessation strategies. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Dec 26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nty270. [Epub ahead of print]
The Summer 2019 Leadership Development Program (LDP) will be dedicated to those people who are working in tobacco control and have been in their position for four years or less. The LOOP LDP can help you to build your capacity and increase your knowledge of tobacco control.
We are actively recruiting 12-16 Fellows to participate in a comprehensive 8-week program (May 8th – June 29th). Once successful applicants complete the program, they will receive a certificate of completion from The LOOP at the University of California, San Francisco. You will also have ongoing access to a cadre of mentorship and support that can benefit your career. We want to help you develop your leadership skills and work through a lens of health equity.
A recently published study explored the effect of tobacco retailer density, neighborhood poverty, and housing type (multiunit and public) on smoking in a large urban environment (New York City). Researchers analyzed data on smoking prevalence and individual sociodemographic characteristics from the 2011-2013 New York City Community Health Survey, data on tobacco retailers from the 2012 New York City Department of Consumer Affairs, data on neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and population density from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, and data on multiunit and public housing from the 2012 New York City Primary Land Use Tax Lot Output data set.
- Neighborhood poverty positively and significantly modified the association between tobacco retailer density and prevalence of neighborhood smoking.
- Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with the prevalence of individual smoking.
Source: Farley et al. (2019). The Influence of Tobacco Retailer Density and Poverty on Tobacco Use in a Densely Populated Urban Environment. Public Health Reports, Mar/Apr;134(2):164-171. doi: 10.1177/0033354918824330. Epub 2019 Feb 14.
On February 22, 2019, Godfrey Ramos of The LOOP presented for Madera County’s youth coalition, Students Working Against Tobacco (SWAT) Team. His presentation entitled, “Flava In Ya Ear: Integrating Hip-Hop Culture Into Your Advocacy”, focused on how to use the 5 Elements of Hip-Hop Culture (Emceeing, DJing, Breakdancing, Graffiti Art, and Knowledge) as a way to mobilize youth, as well the community, around tobacco control efforts.
Godfrey also presented at the 20th Annual Leaders in Life (LIL) Conference in Bakersfield on March 14, 2019. According to the LIL website, students are “educated and enlightened on issues that are important to them so that they can make healthy and informed decisions regarding drug and alcohol abuse, future career exploration, and youth advocacy; and they are motivated to help others make positive decisions.” This was Godfrey’s third consecutive year presenting at the conference.
Godfrey’s presentation has continued to gain buzz and interest because of the way it resonates with youth and young adults. He has been invited to present at the SOL Project’s 2019 SOLdiers Spring Summit in Sacramento this Saturday, April 13th!
If you would like to request assistance from Godfrey or another LOOP Tailored Assistance Trainer for your needs, contact us atTheLOOP@ucsf.edu!
A newly published study examined changes in prevalence of e-cigarette use and perceptions of the harmfulness of e-cigarette and combustible cigarettes following a campus-wide tobacco ban. Undergraduate students completed surveys of tobacco use and perceived product harmfulness. Four samples were collected: in 2013 prior to the ban (n = 792) and in fall 2014 (n = 310), 2015 (n = 208), and 2016 (n = 417).
- E-cigarette use increased in the years following the ban while combustible cigarette use decreased from 2013 to 2016.
- Men were more likely than women to use both products.
- Students’ perceptions of the harmfulness of combustible and electronic cigarettes remained stable in the years following the ban.
Source: Leavens et al. (2019). Electronic cigarette and combustible cigarette use following a campus-wide ban: Prevalence of use and harm perceptions. Journal of American College Health, Jan 25:1-4. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2018.1551803. [Epub ahead of print]