Among the struggles faced by youth currently in or recently exiting foster care, tobacco use remains a low priority for practitioners and researchers, alike. A recently published study aimed to determine the prevalence of lifetime and current combustible and non-combustible tobacco use among youth exiting foster care, and report on the prevalence of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit, and preferred methods of tobacco cessation. Youth aged 18-24 who were transitioning from foster care (N = 154) completed a survey of tobacco product use.
- Most participants (76%) reported lifetime use of combustible cigarettes, while almost half (42%) were current combustible cigarette smokers.
- Current use of electronic cigarettes was comparable to general population rates.
- Many participants (76%) reported interest in quitting and willingness to try through patches/gum (56%) and technology-based (61%) approaches.
The researchers concluded that youth exiting foster care are at high risk for smoking and other tobacco product use, as well as dependence, yet are rarely screened for use or advised to quit.
Source: Braciszewski et al. (2019). Combustible Cigarette Smoking and Alternative Tobacco Use in a Sample of Youth Transitioning from Foster Care. Children and Youth Services Review, 96:231-236.
Electronic cigarette use, including JUUL, has risen to epidemic levels among high school and middle school students in the United States. Schools serve as a key environment for prevention and intervention efforts to address e-cigarette use, yet little is known about the awareness of and response to e-cigarettes in schools. A newly published study of middle and high school teachers and administrators (n = 1,420) measured JUUL awareness, e-cigarette policies, and barriers to enforcement in schools.
- While two thirds of respondents had heard of a product called JUUL (68%), less than half accurately identified a photo of a JUUL as a vaping device/e-cigarette (47%).
- Awareness of JUUL (81%) was higher among high school teachers (83%) than among middle school teachers (78%).
- A large majority of respondents reported that their school had an e-cigarette policy (83%), but less than half of the sample worked in a school with a policy that specifically included JUUL (43%).
- Those working in a school with an e-cigarette policy in place noted that e-cigarettes’ discreet appearance (66%) and difficulties in identifying origin of vapor or scent (46%) made the policy difficult to enforce.
The researchers concluded that efforts to increase middle and high school staff awareness of the ever-evolving e-cigarette market are essential to help prevent youth use.
Source: Schillo et al. (2019). JUUL in School: Teacher and Administrator Awareness and Policies of E-Cigarettes and JUUL in U.S. Middle and High Schools. Health Promotion Practice, Sept 18. [Epub ahead of print]
December 5, 2019
12:00 – 1:00 pm PST
Guest Speakers: Cassandra Park and Rod Lew of SPARC (The Statewide Pacific Islander Asian American Resource and Coordinating Center)
- Understand the history of AANHPI populations in the United States
- Identify the types of tobacco used by AANHPI populations
- Recognize the need for disaggregated data among AANHPI subgroups
- Identify strategies and challenges to engage the AANHPI population
Cassandra “Cassie” Park, is a Program Associate for the APPEAL Statewide Pacific Islander and Asian American Resource and Coordinating Center (SPARC) program. She graduated from San Francisco State University (SF State) with a Bachelor’s Degree in Health Education and Minor in Race and Resistance Studies. Prior to working with APPEAL, Cassie served as the Program Coordinator for the Regional Pacific Islander Taskforce, a tri-county Pacific Islander health advisory group in the Bay Area. She was also a Peer Mentor for SF State’s Asian American and Pacific Islander Retention Education (ASPIRE) program. She is currently involved in the SF State Pacific Islander Initiatives Planning Group, which informs programming for Pacific Islander students and courses on campus. As a mixed Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian), Cassie is an advocate for the liberation and self-determination for all AANHPI communities in their homelands and on the continental US.
Rod Lew, MPH, is the Founder and Executive Director of APPEAL. Prior to APPEAL, Rod was the Health Education Director at Asian Health Services and the Associate Director for the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations. Rod was a contributing author to the 1998 Surgeon General’s Report on Tobacco Use and has written and published widely on tobacco and health disparities. Rod provided testimony to the U.S. Congressional Committee on Commerce on the impact of national tobacco policy in 1999 and to the U.S. Surgeon General in 2004. He has also served on numerous national health advisory committees, including the State of California Tobacco Education and Research Oversight Committee (2000-2006), American Public Health Association (APHA) Equal Health Opportunity Committee (2005-6) and APHA Asian Pacific Islander Caucus, where he served as Chair (1998-2000). Rod was the 2002 recipient of the Christopher Jenkins Cancer Control Award. In 2009, he also received the Lester Breslow Lifetime Achievement Award from the UCLA School of Public Health, his alma mater.
A newly published study examined the risk of asthma in children exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Researchers analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected from 2003 to 2014 (n = 8064).
- The proportion of children living with household smokers decreased from 24.9% in the 2003-2004 cycle to 11.4% in the 2013-2014 cycle.
- Highly exposed asthmatic children were primarily Non-Hispanic Black and whose family incomes were below poverty guidelines.
- Overall results reveal passive smoke exposure level among children ages 3-11 in the US decreased over the study period.
- Nevertheless, higher exposure to passive smoke is still associated with higher odds of childhood asthma.
The researchers concluded that targeted smoking cessation interventions in clinical practices are needed to reduce tobacco smoke exposure and related asthma risk in children, particularly in low-income and minority groups.
Source: Zhang et al. (2018). Decreasing trend in passive tobacco smoke exposure and association with asthma in U.S. children. Environmental Research, May 31;166:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.022. [Epub ahead of print]
The purpose of the fellowship is:
- To prepare individuals from a wide variety of backgrounds in medical, biological, social, behavioral, and policy sciences to join the next generation of academic leaders in tobacco control.
- Upon completion of training, fellows will be well-positioned to be active participants in crucial policy debates about the future development and implementation of tobacco control interventions.
Academic Background Required: Doctorate/Equivalent Degree (MD, DDS, JD)
Prior tobacco research experience is relevant, but not necessary for acceptance.
To learn more about the Center, the fellowship program, current fellows, and faculty and their research interests, CLICK HERE.
Applications will be accepted until
January 22, 2020
for fellowships beginning on July 1, 2020
A newly published study examined perceptions and behaviors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in the current tobacco landscape. Participants were 8th and 10th grade never-smokers of conventional cigarettes from Monitoring the Future surveys (2014-2016).
- Among never-smokers of conventional cigarettes, 17% were susceptible to smoking, 6% were past 30-day alternative tobacco product users, and 4% owned tobacco promotional items.
- Alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, and easy access to cigarettes were associated with increased likelihood of smoking susceptibility.
- Perceived great influence by antismoking ads and higher perceived addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking were associated with lower odds of smoking susceptibility.
The researchers concluded that alternative tobacco product use, ownership of tobacco promotional items, easy access to cigarettes, low influence by antismoking ads, and low perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarettes are significant and actionable risk factors for smoking susceptibility among adolescents.
Source: Owotomo & Maslowsky (2018). Adolescent Smoking Susceptibility in the Current Tobacco Context: 2014-2016. American Journal of Health Behavior, May 1;42(3):102-113. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.42.3.10.
A study published in February 2019 examined prevalence rates of alcohol, nicotine, and other drug use and major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, persistent depression, bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, social and specific phobias, and antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders) between US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and between early entry versus later-entry foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed.
- US-born Mexican Americans and US-born non-Hispanic whites were at greater risk of alcohol, nicotine, and any drug use and their associated disorders and other DSM-5 psychiatric disorders relative to their foreign-born counterparts.
- Foreign-born Mexican Americans < 18 years old at immigration were at greater risk of drug use, drug use disorders, and nicotine use disorder compared with foreign-born Mexican Americans ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
- Foreign-born non-Hispanic whites < 18 years old at immigration were more likely to use substances and to develop many psychiatric disorders relative to foreign-born non-Hispanic whites ≥ 18 years old at immigration.
The researchers concluded that the findings of this study support the healthy immigrant hypothesis and adverse role of acculturation for US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites.
Source: Kerridge et al. (2019). Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders Among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites by Immigration Status. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 21(1).
A recently published study explored the differences in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribing behavior by patient immigrant status. Data from patient surveys and electronic medical-record reviews were used to examine associations between immigrant status and prescription of NRT in-hospital and on discharge. The study population included 1,608 participants, of whom 21% were not born in the United States.
· Nonimmigrants were more likely than immigrants to be prescribed NRT in the hospital and similarly on discharge.
· Both groups were equally likely to accept NRT in-hospital when prescribed.
· Being an immigrant, Black, and Hispanic were associated with lower likelihood of being prescribed NRT in-hospital.
· Provision of NRT prescription at discharge showed no significant difference between immigrants and nonimmigrants.
Source: Chen et al. (2018). Disparities in hospital smoking cessation treatment by immigrant status. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, May 4:1-14.